The Color of Crime Race, Crime, and Justice in America 2016 Revised Edition By Edwin S. Rubenstein New Century Foundation Major Findings • The evidence suggests that if there is police racial bias in arrests it is negligible. Victim and witness surveys show that police arrest violent criminals in close proportion to the rates at which criminals of different races commit violent crimes. • There are dramatic race differences in crime rates. Asians have the lowest rates, followed by whites, and then Hispanics. Blacks have notably high crime rates. This pattern holds true for virtually all crime categories and for virtually all age groups. • In 2013, a black was six times more likely than a non-black to commit murder, and 12 times more likely to murder someone of another race than to be murdered by someone of another race. • In 2013, of the approximately 660,000 crimes of interracial violence that involved blacks and whites, blacks were the perpetrators 85 percent of the time. This meant a black person was 27 times more likely to attack a white person than vice versa. A Hispanic was eight times more likely to attack a white person than vice versa. • In 2014 in New York City, a black was 31 times more likely than a white to be arrested for murder, and a Hispanic was 12.4 times more likely. For the crime of “shooting”—defined as firing a bullet that hits someone—a black was 98.4 times more likely than a white to be arrested, and a Hispanic was 23.6 times more likely. • If New York City were all white, the murder rate would drop by 91 percent, the robbery rate by 81 percent, and the shootings rate by 97 percent. • In an all-white Chicago, murder would decline 90 percent, rape by 81 percent, and robbery by 90 percent. • In 2015, a black person was 2.45 times more likely than a white person to be shot and killed by the police. A Hispanic person was 1.21 times more likely. These figures are well within what would be expected given race differences in crime rates and likelihood to resist arrest. • In 2015, police killings of blacks accounted for approximately 4 percent of homicides of blacks. Police killings of unarmed blacks accounted for approximately 0.6 percent of homicides of blacks. The overwhelming majority of black homicide victims (93 percent from 1980 to 2008) were killed by blacks. • Both violent and non-violent crime has been declining in the United States since a high in 1993. 2015 saw a disturbing rise in murder in major American cities that some observers associated with “depolicing” in response to intense media and public scrutiny of police activity. New Century Foundation - 1 - The Color of Crime The Color of Crime 2016 By Edwin S. Rubenstein, M.A. The past two years have seen unprecedented concern about racial bias in law enforcement. Deaths of young black men at the hands of the police led to serious rioting in Ferguson, Missouri, and in Baltimore. These and other deaths gave rise to the Black Lives Matter movement, which has carried out hundreds of demonstrations across the country and even in Canada. It is widely assumed that the police and the courts are strongly biased—certainly against blacks, and probably against Hispanics. This problem cannot be fully understood by concentrating on a few cases, no matter how disturbing they may first appear. There were an estimated 11,300,000 arrests* in the United States in 2013, the overwhelming majority of which were carried out properly. It is only in a larger context that we can draw conclusions about systemic police bias or misbehavior. This larger context is characterized by two fundamental factors. The first is that different racial groups commit crime at strikingly different rates, and have done so for many years. The second is that crime, overall, has declined dramatically over the last 20 years. Only after considering these points is it possible to draw well-founded conclusions about police bias. In 2005, the New Century Foundation published “The Color of Crime,” a study of the relationship between crime, race, and ethnicity in the United States. The study was based on published government statistics and found that blacks were seven times more likely to commit murder and eight times more likely to commit robbery than people of other races, while Asians had consistently low crime rates. Hispanics appeared to be committing violent crime at roughly three times the white rate, but this conclusion was tentative because official statistics often failed to distinguish between whites and Hispanics. The 2005 study also found that blacks were seven times more likely than whites to be in prison and Hispanics were three times more likely. It also concluded that high black arrest and imprisonment rates—often cited as evidence of a racist criminal justice system—were explained by the black share of offenders. There has been a very important change since 2005: Crime is down. This is clearly indicated by the broadest measure of criminality in the United States, which is the annual National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). In 2013, 90,630 households and 160,040 people were interviewed for the NCVS about their experiences as crime victims—whether reported to the police or not. A 20-year compilation of the survey’s findings indicates that both the number and rate of violent victimizations have declined steadily, albeit unevenly, for at least two decades (see Figure 1). Violent crime includes rape or sexual assault, robbery, simple or aggravated assault, and domestic violence—but not murder. Total violent victimizations in 2013 (the most recent year for NCVS data) were about one-third their 1994 level, which was a record high; the total number declined from 17.1 million in 1994 to 6.1 million in 2013. This drop reflects an even steeper decline in the rate of violent crime (violent crimes per 1,000 people 12 years of age or older)—from 79.8 in 1994 to 23.2 in 2013. A second widely cited measure of crime, the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), confirms that violent crime is in a decades-long decline (see Figure 2). The FBI’s statistics *Underlined words are hyperlinks. In electronic versions of this report, these links lead to sources. Readers of the printed version are invited to refer to www.amren.com/the-color-ofcrime/ to see the electronic versions. New Century Foundation - 2 - The Color of Crime are based on crimes reported to the police, and therefore do not include all crimes, many of which are not reported. Also, some local law enforcement agencies do not submit data for the UCR. For both these reasons, the number of violent victimizations recorded by the UCR—1.16 million in 2013—is a fraction of that year’s NCVS figure of 6.1 million. The decline in violent crimes as reported by the UCR—a 37 percent reduction from 1994 to 2013—is significantly less than the 64 percent drop found by the NCVS over the same period. The reason for this difference may be that as the actual number of crimes drops, victims are more likely to report violence to the police because it is less routine. In 1994, 40.9 percent of victims told the NCVS that they had filed a police report. In 2013, the figure was 44.3 percent. While violent crime is unquestionably down since the last “Color of Crime” report, the share of non-white victims is up (see Table 1). From 2002 to 2013, the number of violent victimizations suffered by whites and blacks fell by 29.5 percent and 20.4 percent, respectively, and the white share of total violent victimizations declined from 73.2 percent to 62.6 percent. (In this report, “white,” “black,” and “Asian” always mean “non-Hispanic.”) Over the same period, Hispanic victimizations rose by 25.6 percent, while the “Other” category (mainly Asians) saw a 9.1 percent rise. Victimization rates for both groups declined— thought not as rapidly as for whites or blacks. The rise in victimizations was the result of a rapid increase in the numbers of these groups. From 2002 to 2013, the Hispanic population age 12 and over, for example, grew 48.6 percent while the corresponding white population grew by only 1.6 percent. The “Two or more races” category did not exist in 2002 for the NCVS,1 and the high victimization rates for this group probably reflect its small sample size: The rate more than doubled from 2012 to 2013. While the black victimization rate exceeded that of whites and Hispanics in both 2002 and 2013, the gap between the black and Hispanic rates narrowed dramatically—from 6.2 victims per 1,000 people (36.1 – 29.9) in 2002 to just 0.3 (25.1 – 24.8) in 2013. If this trend continues, the Hispanic victimization rate will soon exceed the black rate. In 2002, whites were 9 percent more likely to be victims of a crime than Hispanics. By 2013, these groups had changed places, with the white victimization rate 10.5 percent lower than the Hispanic rate. This may be due to il- Table 1. Violent victimizations by race of victims, 2002 and 2013 2002 2013 % change Number White 5,432,632 3,832,527 -29.5% Black 1,023,828 815,061 -20.4% Hispanic 808,355 1,015,672 25.6% Other (a) 159,736 174,309 9.1% Two or more races (b) - 288,854 - Total 7,424,551 6,126,423 -17.5% Percent of total White 73.2% 62.6% -14.5% Black 13.8% 13.3% -3.5% Hispanic 10.9% 16.6% 52.3% Other (a) 2.2% 2.8% 32.2% Two or more races (b) - 4.7% - Total 100.0% 100.0% 0.0% Rate per 1,000 people 12 and older White 32.6 22.2 -31.9% Black 36.1 25.1 -30.5% Hispanic 29.9 24.8 -17.1% Other (a) (c) 31.0 (c) 26.8 -13.5% Two or more races (b) - 90.3 - Total 32.1 23.2 -27.7% (a) Includes Asians, Native Hawaiians, other Pacific Islanders, American Indians, and Alaska Natives. (b) Category did not exist in 2002. (c) Weighted average of victimization rates for Asian/Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native. Data Sources: NCVS (victimizations); Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Criminal Victimization, 2013,” Table 9 (2013 victimization rate); “Criminal Victimization, 2011,” Table 5 (2002 victimization rate); Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Criminal Victimization, 2013,” Table 5 (victims, 2013 and 2004). New Century Foundation - 3 - The Color of Crime legal immigration of Hispanics. A disproportionate number of such immigrants are young men, who are the group most likely to commit crimes, and they may also be vulnerable as victims. Property crimes such as burglary and motor vehicle theft also appear to be in long-term decline, falling from an estimated 35.1 million cases in 1993 to 16.8 million in 2013 (see Figure 3). As with violent crimes, property crime victims are increasingly non-white (see Table 2). The overall property crime rate has declined since the last “Color of Crime”—from 168.2 victimizations per 1,000 households in 2002 to 131.4 per 1,000 in 2013. The number of property crimes suffered by white households fell 20 percent from 2002 to 2013, and their share of such crimes dropped from 70.6 percent to 62.5 percent. Both whites and blacks suffered fewer property crimes in 2013 than in 2002. Race of Offender It is surprisingly difficult to arrive at a definitive picture of the races of offenders. The National Crime Victimization Survey categorizes crime victims by race and Hispanic ethnicity, but until recently, it did not consider Hispanics a separate offender category; it usually called them “white” or “other race.” Furthermore, beginning in 2009, the year the Obama administration took office, the NCVS stopped publishing information on race of offender, even though it continued to gather the data. In 2015, the Department of Justice finally released a partial set of offender-race information (see page 13 below). The Uniform Crime Reports program, which is the basis of the FBI’s national tabulation of arrests, includes Hispanics in the “white” category. Arrest and incarceration rates by race—to the extent they are even available—must often serve as imperfect indicators of actual offense rates by race. As we will see in greater detail below, blacks are arrested at much higher rates than any other racial group.2 It is common to argue that these high rates are the result of racial bias, and that bias continues through every stage of criminal processing: indictment, plea bargain, trial, sentencing, parole, etc. In 2008, then-senator Barack Obama asserted that blacks and whites “are arrested at very different rates, are convicted at very different rates, [and] receive very different sentences . . . for the same crime.” This view is echoed by the media but is not supported by either the scholarly literature or by government statistics. Police, in particular, are often accused of racial bias, but is it really plausible that they arrest blacks they know are innocent but ignore white criminals? A 2008 summary of earlier research compared the races of offenders as identified by victims to the races of perpetrators arrested by the police and found that “the odds of arrest for whites were 22 percent higher for robbery, 13 percent higher for aggravated assault, and 9 percent higher for simple assault than they were for blacks, whereas there were no differences for forcible rape.” A 2015 study of American men based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health found that controlling for IQ and lifetime records of violence completely accounted for racial differences in arrest rates. Fortunately, there is an excellent database that throws light directly on the question of racial bias Table 2. Property crime victimizations by race of head of household, 2002 and 2013 2002 2013 % change Number White 13,108,165 10,491,279 -20.0% Black 2,534,714 2,447,316 -3.4% Hispanic 2,344,423 2,657,590 13.4% Other (a) 567,016 1,177,902 107.7% Total 18,554,318 16,774,087 -9.6% Percent of total White 70.6% 62.5% -11.5% Black 13.7% 14.6% 6.8% Hispanic 12.6% 15.8% 25.4% Other (a) 3.1% 7.0% 129.8% Total 100.0% 100.0% 0.0% Rate per 1,000 households (b) White 168.1 130.6 -22.3% Black 191.0 161.9 -15.2% Hispanic 185.3 139.4 -24.7% Other (a) 88.7 89.6 1.0% Total 168.2 131.4 -21.9% Note: Property crimes include household burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft. a. Includes households headed by Asians, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and, in 2013, persons of two or more races. b. Assumes the average household of each group contains the same number of persons age 12 and older. Data sources: National Crime Victimization Survey, (number); Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Criminal Victim- ization, 2013,” Appendix Table 1. New Century Foundation - 4 - The Color of Crime in arrests: the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). In 2013, 6,328 law enforcement agencies covering approximately 29 percent of the US population reported crime to the FBI using NIBRS categories, which include races of reported offenders as well as races of persons arrested. It is reasonable to assume that both the racial mix of this massive sample and the behavior of police officers are representative of the entire United States. Unfortunately, NIBRS does not distinguish between whites and Hispanics, which means blacks are the only racial group for which we have consistent information. However, blacks are the group most frequently said to be victims of police bias, so if the police treat them fairly it is probably safe to conclude they treat other groups fairly. Figure 4 compares the percentages of criminals that victims say were black to the percentages of arrested suspects who were black. If police are arresting a larger proportion of blacks than the proportion of criminals victims say were black, it would be evidence of bias. For most crimes, blacks make up a larger percentage of reported offenders than they do of those arrested. In only seven of the 22 NIBRS crime categories did blacks account for a larger share of arrests: homicides, counterfeiting/forgery, embezzlement, fraud, stolen property offenses, drug offenses, and gambling. Interestingly, these are crimes for which there may be no witnesses—such as embezzlement or stolen property—or are “victimless” crimes, such as drug offenses and gambling. The racial identification of suspects in these cases may not be reliable. In crimes that involve direct contact with victims and in which race of offender can therefore be clearly identified, black arrest rates are below reported offender rates. For example, blacks were identified as 73 percent of robbery offenders but accounted for only 59 percent of robbery arrests. When crimes from all categories are aggregated, black offenders were 14 percent less likely than non-blacks offenders to be arrested. This suggests that police do not show anti-black bias, but make arrests that closely match the proportions at which people of different races commit crime. NIBRS data come disproportionately from smaller police departments. In 2013, only 10 percent of the population covered by the system lived in cities of 250,000 and greater. What do arrest statistics show for large metropolitan areas? New York City, for example, does not participate in NIBRS but it records the races of arrested offenders, and consistently distinguishes between whites and Hispanics. In 2014, 374 people were arrested for murder. Their races were as follows: White: 2.9 percent New Century Foundation - 5 - The Color of Crime Black: 61.8 percent Hispanic: 31.8 percent Asian: 2.7 percent Other: 0.8 percent Police take murder very seriously and investigate all cases carefully. Press and judicial system scrutiny are high. Arrest rates for murder therefore track actual crime rates more closely than for any other crime. Murder is probably the crime for which it would be most difficult for police to make “biased” arrests even if they wanted. Given a population (page B1 of report) that was 32.8 percent white, 22.6 percent black, 28.9 percent Hispanic, and 13.0 percent Asian, a black was 31 times more likely than a white to be arrested for murder, a Hispanic was 12.4 times more likely than a white, and an Asian was twice as likely. These multiples and those for other crimes appear as graphs on the next page. A “shooting” is discharge of a firearm in which a bullet strikes a person. There is another way to express these disparities. If New York City had been all white in 2014—and the additional whites committed crimes at the same rates as the city’s actual white residents—there would have been 32 murder arrests instead of 374, 1,844 robbery arrests instead of 10,163, and 16 arrests for shootings rather than 503. These figures would reflect reductions in these crimes of no less than 91, 81, and 97 percent, respectively. There are race differences in crime rates throughout the United States, but the differences are particularly sharp in New York and other major cities. This is probably because whites who live in urban centers are often relatively wealthy whereas blacks and Hispanics who live in cities are relatively poor. In the graphs on the following page, the most serious offenses are displayed above, with the less serious offenses below (except for firearms violations, which are serious crimes). Where possible, the graphs are arranged to depict the less serious version of the same crime directly below the more serious version. Misdemeanor sex crimes, for example, do not rise to the level of rape, and include forcible touching and sexual misconduct. Grand larceny is theft of anything with a value greater than $1,000 and includes auto theft, while petty larceny is theft of anything less valuable. Felonious assault includes attack with a deadly weapon, whereas misdemeanor assault includes pushing and spitting. Misdemeanor criminal mischief includes such crimes as cemetery desecration and calling in false fire alarms. Almost without exception, the black/white and Hispanic/ white arrest multiples are lower for the less serious crimes. Whatever else this difference may mean, it is strong evidence that the police are not making biased arrests. Police have broad discretion as to whether they will arrest someone for forcible touching, shoplifting, or setting off a false fire alarm. If racist police wanted to vent prejudices on non-whites, these are the crimes for which they could most easily do so. They can walk away if someone complains he was spat on, and if they are racist they can walk away if the spitter is white but make an arrest if the spitter is black. Police cannot walk away if someone is lying on the sidewalk bleeding from a knife wound. They must try to make an arrest, whatever the race of the suspect. The graphs that show the lowest non-white/ white arrest multiples are for crimes in which police have the greatest arrest discretion and are therefore strong evidence that New York City police are not biased in their arrest patterns. Like New York, Chicago keeps detailed annual statistics on major crimes. Until 2010, it published the race of offenders, but after the election of Mayor Rahm Emanuel, it stopped releasing that information. The 2010 report (page 35) shows that, like New York City, there are stark racial differences. Arrests for murder were as follows: whites—8, blacks—190, Hispanics—48, Asians—1. The racial mix of Chicago’s population in 2010, as reported on page 25 of the police department report (whites—31.7 percent, blacks—32.4 percent, Hispanics—28.9 percent, Asians—5.4 percent) meant that a Chicago black was 24 times more likely than a Chicago white to be arrested for murder, and a Hispanic was 6.7 times more likely. Table 3 shows the multiples for the white arrest rates for a variety of crimes. Sharp racial differences appear not only for crimes of violence but also for property crimes, such as burglary and auto theft. The Chicago data fit the national pattern: Blacks have, by far, the highest arrest rates, followed by Hispanics. Asians have the lowest arrest rates. If the same calculation is done as with New York City to arrive at crime rates in a theoretical all-white Chicago, murder would decline by 90.2 percent, rape by 80.8 percent, and robbery by 90.2 percent. Chicago police also collected information on the sex of arrested criminals. Most people understand that men are more violent and dangerous than women, and this is reflected in the city’s arrest statistics. In 2010, men were 12.8 times more likely than women to be arrested for murder and 19.4 times more likely to be arrested for robbery, compared to the black/ white multiples for these crimes of 23.8 and 27.3, respectively. This means that although men in Chicago are more dangerous than women, by comparison, blacks are even more dangerous when compared to whites. Similar calculations for New York City are not possible because the NYPD does not release arrests by sex. Other American cities release crime statistics but not always for the same categories. Milwaukee records races of suspects in both homicides and “non-fatal shootings.” In 2014 (the most recent year available), blacks were 12 times more likely to be murder suspects than whites, and Hispanics were four times more likely. For non-fatal shootings, blacks were 25 times more likely than whites to be suspects, and Hispanics were 7.6 times more likely. Pittsburgh releases arrest statistics, which follow the same pattern. In 2012 (the most recent year available), blacks were 26.6 times more likely than whites to be arrested for murder. Table 3. Multiples of the White Arrest Rate Chicago, 2010 Black Hispanic Asian Murder 23.8 6.7 0.75 Robbery 27.3 3.9 0.69 Sexual Assault 10.4 4.9 0.23 Aggravated Assault 10.3 3.5 0.72 Burglary 10.8 3.1 0.24 Larceny 4.9 1.2 0.50 Auto Theft 19.9 4.5 0.77 Narcotics 11.5 2.5 0.38 New Century Foundation - 6 - The Color of Crime New Century Foundation - 7 - The Color of Crime The multiples for robbery, rape, and aggravated assault were 9.8, 7.5, and 5.6, respectively. The Hispanic population was so small (2.7 percent) that comparisons were not meaningful. St. Louis, Missouri, keeps track of homicide suspects by race (page 41 of report). In 2013, 96 were black, one was white, one was Hispanic, and one was Asian. Murder victims are not a cross section of the population. In 2013, 82.5 percent had a criminal record (page 40 of report). A larger geographical territory, such as California, gives a broader picture of racial differences in arrest rates, and one in which racial disparities are not nearly so stark. California is one of the few states that treat whites, blacks, and Hispanics separately, so there can be no confusion about how many Hispanics are being counted as whites. The NIBRS data, together with academic studies of policing that find little racial bias in arrests, suggest that arrest figures are probably realistic indices of the different rates at which people of different races commit crime (see Table 4). Consistent with national data, arrest rates of blacks, Hispanics, and “others” have all declined relative to that of whites over the past decade (see the last figures in the table: “Multiple of white rate”). Still, in 2013, California blacks were 5.35 times more likely than whites to be arrested for violent crimes, and 4.24 times more likely to be arrested for property crimes. The corresponding figures for Hispanics were 1.42 and 1.14. “Others,” who are mostly Asians, appear to be a model group. Violent-crime arrest rates are less than half those for whites, and property crime arrest rates are 60 percent lower.3 The “Total” figure indicates the multiple of the white arrest rate for the total population. Black and Hispanic arrest rates raise the multiple while arrest rates for “Others” lower it. While black and Hispanic arrest rates have declined relative to white rates, very high black arrest rates are still the rule for most crimes (see Table 5, next page). In 2013, the black arrest rate multiple (compared to whites) ranged from a low of 1.56 for “dangerous drugs” offenses to a high of 13.39 for robbery. Black arrest rate multiples rose for burglary, forgery, kidnaping, arson, and, especially, dangerous drugs, for which the black multiple more than doubled since 2002. Dangerous drugs are methamphetamine, phencyclidine, and barbiturates. The sharp increase, matched with a very sharp decline in arrests for “narcotics,” probably reflects a shift in “War on Drugs” enforcement policy towards these drugs rather than marijuana. California Hispanics, on the other hand, were less likely than whites to be arrested for drug offenses, narcotics, and arson. At the other extreme, Hispanics were 2.50 times more likely to be arrested for homicide; for forcible rape, the figure is 2.25. Hispanics are now the single largest group in California. In 2014, there were 14.92 million whites and 14.99 million Hispanics in the state. On average, Hispanics are younger than whites and blacks. This means there are relatively more Hispanics in the peak -crime ages of 18 to 29. Some analysts have argued that when age distribution is taken into account, Hispanics are no more likely than whites to commit violent crimes.4 It is not possible to test this theory with national arrest data because not all jurisdictions distinguish between Hispanics All Violent Crimes All Property Crimes 2002 2013 % chg. 2002 2013 % chg. Number Number White 40,309 30,415 -24.5% 47,728 36,672 -23.2% Black 29,230 23,683 -19.0% 29,693 22,660 -23.7% Hispanic 54,016 42,635 -21.1% 50,935 41,304 -18.9% Other 8,504 6,380 -25.0% 9,786 6,359 -35.0% Total 132,059 103,113 -21.9% 138,142 106,995 -22.5% Percent of total Percent of total White 30.5% 29.5% -3.4% 34.5% 34.3% -0.8% Black 22.1% 23.0% 3.8% 21.5% 21.2% -1.5% Hispanic 40.9% 41.3% 1.1% 36.9% 38.6% 4.7% Other 6.4% 6.2% -3.9% 7.1% 5.9% -16.1% Total 100.0% 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% 0.0% Arrest rate (per 100,000 persons) Arrest rate (per 100,000 persons) White 256 204 -20.1% 303 246 -18.6% Black 1,392 1,093 -21.5% 1,414 1,046 -26.1% Hispanic 453 290 -36.1% 428 281 -34.4% Other 180 97 -46.1% 208 97 -53.3% Total 383 269 -29.8% 401 279 -30.3% Multiple of white rate Multiple of white rate White 1.00 1.00 0.0% 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 5.44 5.35 -1.7% 4.67 4.24 -10.0% Hispanic 1.77 1.42 -20.0% 1.41 1.14 -24.0% Other 0.71 0.48 -32.6% 0.69 0.39 -74.3% Total 1.50 1.32 -12.1% 1.32 1.13 -16.8% Data sources: CA Dept. of Justice, “Crime in California,” 2002 and 2013, Table 31 (arrests); American Community Survey 2013 (2013 population); CA Dept. of Finance, CA Current Pop. Survey Report: March 2002 Data. Table 4. Felony arrests by offense and race in California, 2002 and 2013 New Century Foundation - 8 - The Color of Crime Table 5. Multiples of white felony arrest rate in California, 2002 and 2013 Homicide 2002 2013 % change Car theft 2002 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 9.78 8.58 -12.3% Black 5.90 3.82 -35.2% Hispanic 3.40 2.50 -26.5% Hispanic 1.98 1.50 -24.4% Other 1.56 0.65 -58.1% Other 0.75 0.39 -47.9% Total 2.44 1.95 -20.3% Total 1.60 1.25 -22.2% Forcible rape 2002 2013 % change Forgery 2002 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 7.58 6.36 -16.1% Black 5.03 5.40 7.5% Hispanic 2.68 2.25 -16.1% Hispanic 1.32 1.18 -10.3% Other 0.90 0.56 -37.6% Other 0.70 0.57 -18.7% Total 1.97 1.71 -13.2% Total 1.31 1.25 -5.2% Robbery 2002 2013 % change Arson 2002 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 15.88 13.39 -15.7% Black 2.05 2.24 9.2% Hispanic 2.71 1.96 -27.8% Hispanic 0.80 0.74 -6.4% Other 0.86 0.46 -46.8% Other 0.53 0.27 -48.5% Total 2.48 1.98 -20.3% Total 0.93 0.85 -8.7% Assault 2002 2013 % change Drug offenses 2002 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 4.44 4.32 -2.7% Black 4.47 2.32 -48.1% Hispanic 1.65 1.32 -19.7% Hispanic 1.23 0.97 -21.2% Other 0.68 0.47 -30.0% Other 0.37 0.29 -21.3% Total 1.39 1.22 -12.1% Total 1.20 0.94 -21.8% Kidnapping 2002 2013 % change Narcotics 2002 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 6.73 6.95 3.2% Black 17.11 3.56 -79.2% Hispanic 2.84 1.94 -31.6% Hispanic 2.11 0.69 -67.4% Other 0.97 0.60 -38.3% Other 0.49 0.22 -54.5% Total 1.98 1.63 -17.7% Total 2.29 0.89 -61.1% Burglary 2002 2013 % change Dangerous drugs 2002 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 4.40 4.66 5.9% Black 0.75 1.56 107.5% Hispanic 1.40 1.11 -20.8% Hispanic 1.02 1.07 4.4% Other 0.68 0.38 -44.1% Other 0.33 0.28 -17.1% Total 1.30 1.14 -12.2% Total 0.90 0.93 3.5% Theft 2002 2013 % change Driving offenses 2002 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 4.40 3.74 -15.0% Black 1.75 1.73 -1.0% Hispanic 1.22 1.07 -12.8% Hispanic 1.63 1.29 -20.8% Other 0.66 0.39 -41.6% Other 0.56 0.47 -15.7% Total 1.24 1.08 -13.1% Total 1.20 1.06 -11.6% Data sources: CA Dept. of Justice, “Crime in California,” 2002 and 2013, Table 31 (arrests); American Community Survey 2013 (2013 population); CA Dept. of Finance, CA Current Pop. Survey Report: March 2002 Data (population). Community Survey 2013 (2013 population); CA Dept. of Finance, CA Current Population Survey Report: March 2002 Data (2002 population). New Century Foundation - 9 - The Color of Crime Table 6. Multiples of white felony arrest rate by race, ethnicity, and age in California, 2013 All violent offenses Kidnapping White Hispanic Black Other White Hispanic Black Other All ages 1.000 1.431 5.270 0.500 All ages 1.000 1.962 6.846 0.627 10 to 17 1.000 1.612 9.430 0.510 10 to 17 1.000 1.421 4.144 0.773 18 to 29 1.000 1.417 5.066 0.460 18 to 29 1.000 1.977 6.604 0.648 30 to 39 1.000 1.159 3.996 0.454 30 to 39 1.000 1.479 6.151 0.525 40 to 69 1.000 1.039 4.168 0.470 40 to 69 1.000 1.454 5.598 0.486 70+ 1.000 1.145 3.112 1.093 70+ 1.000 3.404 12.061 0.000 Homicide Weapons offenses White Hispanic Black Other White Hispanic Black Other All ages 1.000 2.523 8.460 0.687 All ages 1.000 1.878 5.516 0.417 10 to 17 1.000 8.178 18.374 2.524* 10 to 17 1.000 2.242 4.747 0.567 18 to 29 1.000 2.685 10.089 0.700 18-29 1.000 1.796 5.698 0.432 30 to 39 1.000 1.871 5.525 0.523 30-39 1.000 1.157 4.149 0.310 40 to 69 1.000 1.207 5.171 0.557 40-69 1.000 0.986 3.783 0.270 70+ 1.000 0.425 1.508 0.486 70+ 1.000 0.400 4.966 0.458 Forcible rape Driving under the influence White Hispanic Black Other White Hispanic Black Other All ages 1.000 2.271 6.266 0.588 All ages 1.000 1.244 1.659 0.467 10 to 17 1.000 1.105 4.168 0.311 10 to 17 1.000 0.680 0.372 0.000 18 to 29 1.000 2.032 5.653 0.605 18-29 1.000 1.156 1.072 0.528 30 to 39 1.000 2.187 5.167 0.504 30-39 1.000 1.054 1.588 0.405 40 to 69 1.000 2.244 6.567 0.554 40-69 1.000 1.212 2.148 0.344 70+ 1.000 0.000 0.000 1.945 70+ 1.000 1.418 4.020 1.621 Robbery Property offenses White Hispanic Black Other White Hispanic Black Other All ages 1.000 1.978 13.197 0.483 All ages 1.000 1.149 4.182 0.413 10 to 17 1.000 2.980 29.807 0.981 10 to 17 1.000 1.416 6.118 0.462 18 to 29 1.000 1.579 10.356 0.421 18 to 29 1.000 0.957 3.431 0.357 30 to 39 1.000 1.065 6.953 0.308 30 to 39 1.000 0.827 2.982 0.353 40 to 69 1.000 1.181 9.034 0.334 40 to 69 1.000 0.904 4.022 0.398 70+ 1.000 2.431 1.723 0.000 70+ 1.000 1.243 5.169 0.803 Assault Burglary White Hispanic Black Other White Hispanic Black Other All ages 1.000 1.335 4.257 0.497 All ages 1.000 1.120 4.596 0.401 10 to 17 1.000 1.293 5.049 0.398 10 to 17 1.000 1.440 6.820 0.496 18 to 29 1.000 1.354 4.026 0.459 18 to 29 1.000 0.869 3.745 0.335 30 to 39 1.000 1.145 3.621 0.467 30 to 39 1.000 0.751 3.096 0.330 40 to 69 1.000 1.008 3.783 0.477 40 to 69 1.000 0.862 3.973 0.384 70+ 1.000 1.140 3.183 1.145 70+ 1.000 1.702 3.837 1.414 Motor vehicle theft Theft White Hispanic Black Other White Hispanic Black Other All ages 1.000 1.486 3.762 0.409 All ages 1.000 1.077 3.683 0.405 10 to 17 1.000 1.923 4.987 0.447 10 to 17 1.000 1.359 6.196 0.451 18-29 1.000 1.347 2.949 0.355 18 to 29 1.000 0.937 2.884 0.371 30-39 1.000 0.930 2.836 0.355 30 to 39 1.000 0.850 2.684 0.347 40 to 60 1.000 0.940 4.027 0.363 40 to 69 1.000 0.912 4.069 0.386 70+ 1.000 0.851 3.015 1.945 70+ 1.000 0.972 7.322 0.417 Data sources: California Dept. of Justice, “Crime in California,” 2013, Table 33 (arrests by offense, age, race, and ethnicity); California Dept. of Finance, Demographic Research Unit, Report P-3, December 14, 2014 (population by age). *Very low numbers, which may not be representative: 5 whites, 7 others. New Century Foundation - 10 - The Color of Crime and whites. However, California distinguishes consistently between whites and Hispanics, and also includes arrest rates by age group. Table 6 on page 9, which is probably representative of the entire country, deserves careful study. Hispanics of every age group are more likely than whites to be arrested for every type of violent crime. For the highestcrime age group of 18 to 29, this is particularly noticeable for homicide (2.7 times the white rate), rape (2 times) and kidnapping (2 times). Though the sample size is small, Hispanic teenagers (ages 10 to 17) were 8.2 times more likely than whites of the same age group to be arrested for homicide: In 2013, 74 Hispanic and five white teenagers were arrested for this crime. (There are more than twice as many Hispanics as whites in this age range, which brings down the multiple.) Gang violence is probably a cause. Assaults are the most common violent crime, and accounted for 80 percent of all arrests for violent crimes in California in 2013. Hispanics of every age group are arrested for assault at higher rates than whites, for an overall multiple of 1.34. Blacks, however, are arrested at sharply higher multiples than both whites and Hispanics. Robbery is a perennial standout in this respect, with multiples as high as 29.8 in the 10 to 17 age group. There was only one age group, for only one crime, for which blacks were arrested at a lower rate than whites: drunk driving in the 10 to 17 age range. Again, this is a crime for which police have almost complete discretion when deciding to make an arrest, so there would be a high black/white multiple if officers were intent on targeting blacks unfairly. Blacks are the main cause of urban crime. As Hispanics displace blacks in America’s largest cities and in its largest state, crime rates should remain stable or decline because Hispanics are displacing the group with the highest crime rates. To return to Table 5, it is notable that the “Other” category of offenders—which is composed largely of Asians—has the lowest arrest rates across the board. This is consistent not only with earlier versions of “The Color of Crime” but with virtually every study conducted on American crime rates. As the number of Asians in a jurisdiction rises, crime rates can be expected to fall. Incarceration The criminal justice system begins with arrest, and continues through incarceration and release. Federal and state incarceration statistics are consistent, reliable, and distinguish between whites, blacks, Hispanics, and people of other races. They are therefore the best single nationwide indicator of the racial distribution of criminal activity. Of course, for incarceration rates to be a valid measure of crime rates, the criminal justice system must be free of systematic bias at every stage—from indictment to the decision to grant parole. There have been many investigations of bias in the justice system, and a summary of the literature is beyond the scope of this report. However, a typical 2009 academic study of the process up through sentencing concludes that: [U]sing arrests as a marker of violent offending, the overrepresentation of blacks among offenders admitted to state prisons occurs because they commit a disproportionate number of frequently imprisoned (i.e., violent) crimes. One simple test for bias is to see whether incarceration rates by race generally correspond to arrest rates. Earlier, we noted that if the racial distribution of arrests matches the racial distribution of offenders identified by victims or witnesses, we can conclude that there is little or no systematic police bias. A comparison between arrest and incarceration rates should be a similar test for justice system bias. Incarceration rates consistently higher than arrest rates could suggest post-arrest bias, whereas incarceration consistently lower than arrest rates could suggest unjustified arrests that lead to release or acquittal. Figure 7 compares the percentage of arrests of blacks (average percentages from 2009 to 2013) to incarcerations of blacks. Total incarcerations are slightly higher than total arrests for some crimes, but for others they are lower. We cannot rule out justice system bias. However, the general concordance between arrest and incarceration rates suggests an absence of serious or systematic racial bias. Statistics that fail to distinguish between whites and Hispanics at the time of arrest mean it is not possible to make a similar comparison for Hispanics. The decline in arrests noted above is beginning to be reflected in incarceration figures. Department of Justice data show that the total incarcerated population peaked in 2008, New Century Foundation - 11 - The Color of Crime and has since declined slightly (see Figure 8). Between 1993 and 2013, the total incarcerated population rose by about 878,000, or 61 percent, while the US population rose by only 22 percent. Since the last “Color of Crime” (2002 data), the total inmate count is up by 201,000, or 10 percent. The incarceration rate peaked at 788 per 100,000 US residents in 2007 and declined to 730 by 2013. This is practically identical to the rate of 732 for 2002. Federal prisoner data are no longer available by offense and race.5 However, our primary interest is in violent crime, which is almost always handled in state courts. As shown in Table 7, the state prison population sentenced for violent crimes increased by about 18 percent since the last “Color of Crime” report. (There is an increase because this is a comparison with 2001 figures; a comparison with 2009 figures would show a decrease.) Hispanics and “others” were the fastest growing incarcerated categories: up 58 percent and 107 percent, respectively. Part of the rise in “others” reflects a statistical reclassification: Prisoners who identified themselves as being of “two or more” races were counted as “others” in 2013. The multi-race category did not exist in 2001. Blacks were the only group to see a reduction in incarceration rates, but the reduction was small, and blacks remained far more likely to be incarcerated for violent crimes than any other group. The black violent-crime incarceration rate in 2013 was 6.3 times that of the white rate. This does not necessarily mean that blacks are 6.3 times more likely to commit violent crimes, because prison time depends on the severity of the crime as well as prior record. Table 8 on page 12 shows the change in incarceration rate multiples from 2001 (the benchmark year for the last “Color of Crime”) to 2013. While blacks were incarcerated at rates well above whites (and other groups) in 2013, their relative incarceration rates have come down for most offenses since 2001. In some cases the black/white multiple has narrowed significantly: a sharp 56.4 percent drop in the multiple for drug offenses, 49.6 percent for manslaughter, 80.4 percent for larceny, etc. Hispanic multiples are generally down as well, though the multiple for rape was up 40 percent. Perhaps the biggest surprise is the surging incarceration multiples for “Other,” a group comprised of Asians, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, and persons of two or more races. This was probably caused by a change in prisoner categorization. American Indians, whose incarceration rates are second only to those of blacks, were treated as a separate category in 2001. Including them in the “Other” category in 2013 undoubtedly pushed up the apparent rates for Asians. Table 9 on page 13 shows that despite the historic decline in crime, the number of prisoners incarcerated for murder has increased 4 percent since 2001, and that Hispanics accounted for all of the increase. The number of Hispanics incarcerated for murder rose by about 40 percent, while the number of non-Hispanics fell by 3.2 percent. Although the Hispanic population grew significantly faster than the non-Hispanic population from 2001 to 2013, its incarceration rate for murder fell less than half as much as the non-Hispanic rate over that period. Table 7. Prisoners Under State Jurisdiction Sentenced for Violent Crimes, 2001 and 2013 2001 2013 % change Number White 208,100 223,900 7.6% Black 267,800 282,100 5.3% Hispanic 102,600 162,300 58.2% Other 17,600 36,500 107.4% Total 596,100 704,800 18.2% Percent of total White 34.9% 31.8% -9.0% Black 44.9% 40.0% -10.9% Hispanic 17.2% 23.0% 33.9% Other 3.0% 5.2% 72.6% Total 100.0% 100.0% 0.0% Incarceration rate (per 100,000 residents) White 105 113 7.6% Black 746 709 -5.0% Hispanic 265 289 9.1% Other 120 138 15.0% Total 207 220 6.3% a. Includes Asians, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, and for 2012, persons of two or more races. Data sources: Bureau of Statistics, “Prisoners in 2014,” Appendix Table 4 (2013); “Prisoners in 2002,” Table 15, page 10 (2001). New Century Foundation - 12 - The Color of Crime Table 8. Multiples of White Incarceration Rate in State Prisons, 2001 and 2013 All crimes 2001 2013 % change All property crimes 2001 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 7.14 5.27 -26.2% Black 5.00 3.45 -31.0% Hispanic 2.48 2.06 -16.9% Hispanic 1.63 1.11 -31.9% Other (a) 0.97 1.36 40.2% Other (a) 0.85 1.21 42.4% All violent crimes 2001 2013 % change Burglary 2001 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 7.10 6.26 -11.8% Black 4.97 4.11 -17.3% Hispanic 2.52 2.55 1.2% Hispanic 1.65 1.38 -16.4% Other (a) 1.14 1.22 7.0% Other (a) 0.91 1.37 50.5% Murder 2001 2013 % change Larceny 2001 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 8.26 7.53 -8.8% Black 6.44 1.26 -80.4% Hispanic 2.76 2.55 -7.6% Hispanic 1.79 0.78 -56.4% Other (a) 0.73 2.18 198.6% Other (a) 1.32 0.11 -91.7% Manslaughter 2001 2013 % change Car theft 2001 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 5.52 2.78 -49.6% Black 5.36 2.54 -52.6% Hispanic 2.84 1.61 -43.3% Hispanic 3.11 1.87 -39.9% Other (a) 1.71 4.72 176.0% Other (a) 0.39 1.07 174.4% Rape/Sexual Assault 2001 2013 % change Fraud 2001 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 2.77 2.51 -9.4% Black 4.20 2.62 -37.6% Hispanic 1.19 1.67 40.3% Hispanic 0.93 0.61 -34.4% Other (a) 0.90 1.02 13.3% Other (a) 0.39 1.45 271.8% Robbery 2001 2013 % change Other Property Crimes 2001 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 14.74 13.10 -11.1% Black 4.17 2.27 -45.6% Hispanic 3.93 3.49 -11.2% Hispanic 1.57 0.87 -44.6% Other (a) 1.54 1.53 -0.6% Other (a) 0.73 2.43 232.9% Assault 2001 2013 % change Drug Offenses 2001 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 7.17 6.57 -8.4% Black 13.45 5.86 -56.4% Hispanic 3.35 3.06 -8.7% Hispanic 4.20 2.07 -50.7% Other (a) 1.59 0.24 -84.9% Other (a) 0.49 2.24 357.1% Other Violent Crimes 2001 2013 % chang. Public Order (b) 2001 2013 % change White 1.00 1.00 0.0% White 1.00 1.00 0.0% Black 4.72 5.78 22.2% Black 4.99 6.07 21.6% Hispanic 2.06 2.38 15.5% Hispanic 2.35 1.86 -20.9% Other (a) 1.15 NA NA Other (a) 0.52 0.77 48.1% a. Includes Asians, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, and, in 2013, persons of two or more races. b. Includes weapons, drunk driving, morals, and other public order offenses. Data sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Prisoners in 2002,” Table 15, page 10 (2001); “Prisoners in 2014,” Appendix Table 4 (2013). New Century Foundation - 13 - The Color of Crime Interracial Crime As noted above, in 2009, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) stopped publishing data on the races of criminals. Recently, however, figures from the 2013 NCVS were released in which blacks, whites, and Hispanics were, for the first time, treated separately. From these data it can be calculated, first, that a great deal of violent crime—40 to 60 percent—is committed within the races. However, when violence crosses racial lines it does so in a very unequal manner. In 2012 and 2013, blacks committed an annual average of 560,600 crimes of violence against whites whereas whites committed only about 99,400 such crimes against blacks. This means blacks were the attackers in 84.9 percent of the violent crimes involving blacks and whites. Some observers argue that the overwhelming preponderance of black-on-white over white-on-black violence suggests that blacks deliberately target whites for violence. Others argue that since there are 4.7 times as many whites as blacks in the population, it is to be expected that black criminals are more likely to encounter white victims than vice versa. Both positions must be evaluated in light of several considerations. First, blacks who commit assault, robbery, and rape are likely to be members of the underclass, who live in largely black neighborhoods. If they chose victims without regard to race they should be more likely to encounter other blacks rather than whites. Second, black/Hispanic interracial crime fits the same lopsided pattern: Of the 256,074 violent crimes involving those two groups, blacks were perpetrators 82.5 percent of the time. Unlike the nearly five-fold difference in numbers between blacks and whites, there are only about 30 percent more Hispanics than blacks. The high black-aggressor figure suggests that blacks may also deliberately target Hispanics—perhaps even more than they target whites. The imbalance can be expressed differently: When whites commit violence they target other whites 82.4 percent of the time, blacks 3.6 percent of the time, and Hispanics 7.8 percent of the time. In other words, white violence is directed overwhelmingly at other whites. When blacks commit violence only a minority—40.9 percent—of their victims are black. Whites are 38.6 percent and Hispanics are 14.5 percent. Hispanic assailants also attack their own group less often than they attack others. Their victims are: Hispanics—40.1 percent, whites—50.7 percent, and blacks—4.7 percent. Finally, interracial crime can be expressed in terms of the greater or lesser likelihood of a person of one race to commit violence against a member of the other. In 2012/2013, the actual likelihood of attack was extremely low in all cases, but statistically, any given black person was 27 times more likely to attack a white and six times more likely to attack a Hispanic than vice versa. A Hispanic was eight times more likely to attack a white than the reverse. The Department of Justice keeps national records on murder. In 2013, it reported 5,621 single-offender, single-victim cases in which the race of the murderer was known. Like most federal statistics, there is no clear distinction between whites and Hispanics, so the only meaningful racial categories are black and non-black. Blacks killed 2,698 people—48 percent of the total—and non-blacks killed 2,923 or 52 percent. Since blacks were just 13.3 percent of the population, it meant a black was six times more likely than a non-black to commit murder. Although most murders are within the same race, blacks were 13.6 times more likely to kill non-blacks than non-blacks were to kill blacks. Police Killings of Blacks There has been considerable concern about police killings of blacks, especially after Officer Darren Wilson shot Michael Brown on Aug. 9, 2014, in Ferguson, Missouri. Officer Wilson is white and Brown was black and unarmed. Although an extensive investigation by the Department of Justice found that Officer Wilson acted appropriately in response to Brown’s physical attacks and subsequent threats, the shooting provoked riots and gave impetus to the Black Lives Matter movement, which claims that racist police officers routinely kill unarmed blacks. This claim has been difficult to verify, since there are no national statistics on police shootings. Moreover, as noted above, broad arrest statistics and academic studies do not support the view that arrests are biased, so there is little reason to think shootings would be biased. The Black Lives Matter movement has not been driven by data but by the deaths of specific people such as Michael Brown, Eric Garner, Tamir Rice, Sandra Bland, and Freddie Gray. Freddie Gray’s death, due to injuries after his arrest in Baltimore, also provoked riots and was taken up with great energy by Black Lives Matter. Three of the six officers charged in Gray’s death were black—and they were charged with the most serious crimes—but the incident is still cited as an Table 9. Prisoners sentenced for murder in state prisons, 2001 and 2013 2001 2013 % Change Number Hispanic 27,800 39,000 40.3% non-Hispanic 131,400 127,200 -3.2% Total 159,200 166,200 4.4% Percent of total Hispanic 17.5% 23.5% 34.4% non-Hispanic 82.5% 76.5% -7.3% Total 100.0% 100.0% 0.0% per 100,000 residents Hispanic 72 70 -2.8% non-Hispanic 53 48 -9.0% Total 55 52 -5.5% Data source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 2014, Appendix Table 4, (2013); Prisoners in 2002, Table 15, page 10. (2001) New Century Foundation - 14 - The Color of Crime example of police racism. In the absence of government data, the Washington Post investigated every reported case of a fatal shooting by the police during 2015. It found 990 cases, with the following racial distribution of victims: White: 50.0 percent (495 victims) Black: 26.1 percent (258) Hispanic: 17.4 percent (172) Asian: 1.4 percent (14) Other/Unknown: 5.2 percent (51) Given their proportions in the population, a black person was 2.45 times more likely than a white person to be shot and killed by police, a Hispanic was 1.24 times more likely, and an Asian was only one third as likely. It is reasonable to expect people of different races to find themselves in potentially lethal confrontations with the police in proportion to their likelihood to commit violent crime, with blacks most likely and Asians least likely. As noted in Table 4 above, in California—a large state that keeps consistent statistics on race and ethnicity—blacks are arrested for violent crimes at 5.35 times the white rate, and Hispanics at 1.42 times the white rate. The low likelihood of Asians being killed by police is in keeping with low Asian arrest rates for violent crime. The black and Hispanic multiples for police shooting deaths are well within the arrest multiples—the black multiple is less than half—and certainly do not suggest undisciplined police violence. Moreover, FBI data show that from 2005 to 2014, blacks accounted for 40 percent of police killings. Since blacks were approximately 13 percent of the population, it meant they were 4.46 times more likely than people of other races to kill a police officer. In its study, the Post found that men were 22.9 times more likely than women to be shot and killed by officers. No one suggests that law enforcement bias accounts for this huge multiple, which is undoubtedly caused by differences in behavior between men and women. In the case of racial multiples, police bias cannot be ruled out, but it is reasonable to assume that the multiples are explained by race differences in behavior. The Washington Post noted further that all but 93 of the 990 people fatally shot by police were armed, usually with a firearm or knife. The unarmed victims had the following racial distribution: White: 34.4 percent (32 victims) Black: 40.8 percent (38) Hispanic: 19.4 percent (18) Asian: 0 percent (0) Unknown: 5.4 percent (5) An unarmed black was therefore 5.6 times more likely than an unarmed white to be shot by police, and a Hispanic was 2.6 times more likely. The black multiple is certainly high, though not that much higher than the California violent-arrest multiple of 5.35 noted above. There is no obvious explanation for why unarmed blacks were shot and killed at a white multiple that was twice that for armed blacks. If police bias is the cause, there is no clear reason why it should be worse in the case of unarmed suspects. The sample size of 93 is small, so random events produce a large effect. It may be that race differences in how suspects behave when they are arrested explain at least part of the difference. There are no national data, but a five-year study of non-felony arrests in San Francisco found that blacks were 9.6 times more likely than whites (including Hispanics) to be charged with resisting arrest, and whites were 8.6 times more likely than Asians to be so charged. In Chicago, from September 2014 to September 2015, blacks accounted for 77 percent of arrests for obstruction of justice and resisting arrest (page 4 of report), meaning they were 6.8 times more likely than non-blacks to be arrested on these charges. If these findings are typical, they help explain why the arrest of a black non-felony suspect—who would more than likely be unarmed—could escalate into potentially lethal violence. The Post’s analysis was intended to throw light on police bias but failed to indicate the races of the officers involved in fatal shootings. This would be useful information. A 2015 Department of Justice study (page 3) of police shootings in Philadelphia found racial differences in “threat perception failure,” that is, cases in which an officer shot an unarmed suspect because the officer thought the suspect was armed. Black officers were nearly twice as likely as white officers to shoot an unarmed black (11.4 percent of all shootings by black officers vs. 6.8 percent of all shootings by white officers). The percentage of such errors by Hispanic officers—16.7 percent—was even higher. Black officers may be somewhat more prone to error in general. About 12 percent of police officers in the United States are black. Between 2005 and 2015, 16.6 percent of the 54 officers criminally charged for fatally shooting someone while on duty were black. Homicide is a serious problem for black men. Since at least 2002 and up to 2013 (the latest data available), murder was the leading cause of death for black men, ages 15 to 34. Their murderers are almost always other black men. According to a Department of Justice report, (page 13), from 1980 to 2008, 93 percent of black homicide victims were killed by blacks. By contrast, the 256 police judicial killings of blacks in 2015 would be only 4.2 percent of the 6,095 blacks who were murdered in 2014 (the most recent year for which national data are available). The 38 unarmed blacks killed by police accounted for just 0.6 percent. Police shootings of unarmed blacks is a very small problem compared to murder in the black community. Immigrants and Crime When Donald Trump announced his candidacy for the Republican nomination on June 16, 2015, he said of Mexican immigrants: “They’re bringing drugs. They’re bringing crime. They’re rapists. And some, I assume, are good people.” This caused much controversy, not least because even professional criminologists have difficulty quantifying immigrant criminality. Prisons can easily determine the race and ethnicity of inmates but determining immigration status is harder because it is generally based on self-reporting. Convicted felons are not eager to admit they are not citizens because they could be deported after they are released. So-called sanctuary cities forbid local police departments even from asking prisoners about immigration status. Despite the difficulty in determining immigrant crime rates, Hispanics have higher crime rates than the majority white population, and many immigrants are Hispanic. Immigrants are people whom the United States chooses to admit to its territory. If the selection process were perfect, no criminals would be admitted and the immigrant crime rate would be New Century Foundation - 15 - The Color of Crime zero. For immigrants to have even low crime rates reflects poorly on immigration policy. Illegal immigrants are, by definition, not even selected, and there are only partial data on illegal immigrants, the crimes they commit, and where they are from. The Department of Justice’s State Criminal Alien Assistance Program (SCAAP) reimburses prisons and jails for the costs of holding illegal aliens. Prison systems must document the immigration status of inmates to get SCAAP payments—sanctuary jurisdictions choose to forego this subsidy. In a 2011 report, “Criminal Alien Statistics,” the Government Accountability Office studied the 249,000 illegal aliens for whom SCAAP funds were paid in 2009. It found that this group of aliens had been arrested a total of 1.7 million times— an average of roughly seven arrests per illegal alien inmate—and had been charged with 2.9 million separate offenses, or roughly 12 offenses each. All told, these criminal aliens accounted for the following numbers of arrests for the following crimes: Homicides: 25,064 Sex offenses: 69,929 Assaults: 213,047 GAO found that about 66 percent of the SCAAP criminal illegal aliens in state prisons were born in Mexico and another 17 percent were born in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Cuba, or Jamaica. Local jail inmates were even more heavily Mexican. Seventy percent were born in Mexico, while another 13 percent were from other Latin American countries. The operating costs (prison staff salaries, medical care, food, utilities) of incarcerating these criminal illegal aliens in state prison systems totaled $7 billion for fiscal years 2003 through 2009. This figure obviously does not include the costs of incarcerating illegal aliens in sanctuary jurisdictions because those costs are unknown. Race and Drug Arrests It is often claimed that blacks suffer unfairly from the enforcement of drug laws, and it is true that longer sentences for possession of crack cocaine rather than powder fell more heavily on blacks. As a 1997 report from the University of Chicago notes: From 1965 through the early 1980s, blacks were approximately twice as likely as whites to be arrested for drug-related offenses . . . . Following the federal government’s initiation of the “War on Drugs,” black arrest rates skyrocketed, while white arrest rates increased only slightly. By the end of the 1980s, blacks were more than five times more likely than whites to be arrested for drug-related offenses. . . . [T]hese differences reflect the government’s targeting and enforcement of specific types of drug use and trafficking.6 Even setting aside the question of crack versus powder cocaine, it is often claimed that blacks suffer from police bias in drug arrests. It is common to allege that although blacks and whites use marijuana at roughly the same rate, blacks are nearly four times more likely than whites to be arrested for possession. The assumption that whites and blacks take drugs at the same rate is based on answers to survey questions. However, there is evidence that blacks are less likely than whites to report illegal drug use. A number of studies have asked subjects about drug use and then checked their answers against the results of urine- or hair-analysis tests. A 2005 study in the Journal of Urban Health, for example, found that blacks were ten times more likely than whites to lie about cocaine use. Hispanics were five times more likely to lie. There were similar differences in reported use of marijuana. The study concluded that “the results replicate and extend a growing body of research suggesting that African Americans underreport substance use on surveys.” Studies from 2003, 2008, and as long ago as 1994 report similar findings, though one from 2001 found ambiguous results. There is other evidence that drug use is not the same across racial groups. The US Department of Health and Human Services keeps records of how many people of different races went to emergency rooms because of an acute reaction to illegal drugs. In 2011, the most recent year for which data are available, blacks were 2.8 times more likely than whites to end up in the ER because of marijuana, and seven times more likely because of cocaine. For all drugs, the multiple was 3.5. There is no reason to think these figures reflect anything other than different rates of illegal drug use. Ever since receiving home rule in 1975, Washington, D.C., has had a black mayor and most of its police chiefs have been black. In any given year, as many as two-thirds of its police officers are black. And yet, in 2010, a black district resident was 8 times more likely than a white resident to be arrested for marijuana possession. It is hard to imagine this was because of police discrimination rather than differences in marijuana use. Finally, it would be possible for blacks to be no more likely than whites to use drugs but still be arrested more often for using them, even by scrupulously race-neutral police. That is because blacks commit a larger number of other crimes. If someone is arrested for robbery, for example—and in California blacks were more than 13 times more likely than whites to be arrested for robbery—the police search the suspect for drugs. If they find drugs they add a charge of possession in addition to robbery. Higher rates of illegal activity expose blacks to more intense criminal processing. In any case, since the last “Color of Crime,” the black/ white incarceration multiple for drug offenses has declined by nearly 60 percent (see Table 8, page 12). This probably reflects the government’s response to prison overcrowding as well as a reorientation of enforcement activity in the War on Drugs rather than a decline in police bias. Crime and Punishment High incarceration rates combined with declines in violent crime suggest that incarceration reduces crime. Those who disagree with this conclusion argue that if one criminal is locked up, another will simply take his place. However, criminals do not wait for a competitor to leave the business. Opportunities for violence and theft are virtually unlimited. A second argument against mass incarceration is based on the theory of diminishing returns. As incarceration rates go higher, police start scraping the bottom of the criminal barrel. The marginal prisoner becomes less and less dangerous compared to those already behind bars. In fact, the chances of a criminal being caught and sent to prison are very low. Even the JFA Institute, an anti-incarceration advocacy group, estimates that in only 3 percent of violent or property crimes do offenders end up in prison. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), in 2004 only 1.6 percent New Century Foundation - 16 - The Color of Crime of burglars were in prison. Recidivism rates are strong evidence that incarceration prevents crime. The BJS tracked 404,638 state prisoners released in 2005. Within one year, 43.4 percent had been rearrested. This percentage grew with every succeeding year, rising to 76.7 percent at the end of five years. At that point, the released prisoners had been arrested a total of 1,173,000 times, or an average of 2.9 times each. These figures do not include the estimated 12 to 15 crimes a felon commits every year when he is not imprisoned and that do not result in an arrest.7 Many people believe that prisons are filled with non-violent drug offenders. It is true that half of federal prisoners are guilty of drug crimes—almost always trafficking—but they account for only 13 percent of the nation’s prison population, with the rest in state prison. Casual drug use almost never results in a prison term. In 2013, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (page 15 of report), only 3.7 percent of state prisoners were convicted only of drug possession, and this was generally the result of a plea bargain to avoid charges of trafficking. Most had long prior records. Only 12.2 percent of state prisoners were convicted even of trafficking. Fully 53.8 percent of state prisoners were guilty of violent crimes, and 18.8 percent had committed property crimes. America’s high incarceration rate is nothing to be proud of, but any significant reduction in the inmate population is likely to release large numbers of unreformed criminals who will prey on law-abiding people of all races. A Ferguson Effect? The year 2015 ended on a worrying note. National figures for all index crimes had not yet been compiled at the time this report was completed, but one crime had clearly reversed its decades-long downward trend: murder. In the most populous American cities, murder increased at the following rates over 2014: New York City: 5 percent Los Angeles: 10 percent Chicago: 13 percent Houston: 23 percent Philadelphia: 12 percent In Baltimore, murders were up a shocking 63 percent and gun violence (including non-fatal shootings) was up 75 percent. Washington, D.C., saw an increase of 54 percent. In Milwaukee, murders were up 65 percent in 2015, and 91 percent of the victims were either black (83 percent) or Hispanic (8 percent). Detroit bucked the trend and saw a decline of 1.3 percent. There was some speculation that the overall rise was caused because of less active policing, or “de-policing.” Officers may have been unwilling to take risks in crime prevention for fear that even a slight misstep could come under career-ending scrutiny. This was known as “the Ferguson effect.” The officer who shot Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, was forced out of his job because of media coverage and public protest even though a Justice Department study later found that he had acted properly. The rise of the Black Lives Matter movement and harsh anti-police rhetoric also put police under intense scrutiny, which may have led to less aggressive crime fighting. Baltimore appears to have suffered from the Ferguson effect. There was a sharp rise in gun violence in the months after the riots of April, 2015, during which the police did not arrest looters because they were told not to “engage” with rioters. The riots also led to the indictment in May of the six officers involved in the death of Freddie Gray. Baltimore police felt betrayed by charges that some legal experts considered unreasonable. A number of department veterans predicted that demoralized officers would take fewer risks and that there would be a spike in crime. That is exactly what happened. Whatever the cause, the extraordinary decline in crime rates since the 1990s may have come to an end. Endnotes 1. We present “Two or more races” as a separate victim group in 2013 because the NCVS breaks it out that way. As noted below, however, incarceration figures published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics lump all non-Hispanic prisoners of “Two or more races” into the “Other, non-Hispanic” category. Had we done this in the above table, violent victimization of “Other, non-Hispanics” would have risen by 190 percent since 2002. In fact, there are undoubtedly people who identified themselves as white or black in 2002 who would chose “Two or more races” in 2013. To the extent that this is true, the decline in white and black victimization rates in the table is overstated. 2. High crime rates among blacks are not limited to the United States. Statistics released by the Metropolitan Police in London, England, show that in 2009/10 blacks accounted for 54 percent of arrests for street crimes, 59 percent for robbery, and 67 percent for gun crimes. Blacks accounted for just over 12 percent of London’s population of 7.5 million. Likewise, according to information that had to be sought through a freedom-of-information request, in 2002, blacks were 8.1 percent of the population of Toronto, Canada, but accounted for 27 percent of all charges for violent crimes. 3. “Other, non-Hispanic” victims of violent crime are also far less likely to report their victimizations to police: only 12.8 percent of them did so in 2013, according to the NCVS. The average reporting rate for all victims that year was 44.3 percent. 4. For the best argued case for this view, see Ron Unz, “Hispanic,” The American Conservative, March 2010. 5. The source for federal prison inmates cited in the earlier “Color of Crime,” the Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, is no longer published. Current federal inmate data are available, in database format, from the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD). Ten years ago NACJD files were available to the public; today access is restricted. In any event, the state prison population is about six times larger than the federal prison population. It is not surprising, therefore, that our 2013 incarceration rate multiples for blacks and Hispanics, which are based on state prison inmates alone, are very close to the multiples in the earlier report, which were based on combined state and federal inmates. 6. Robert J. Sampson and Janet L. Lauritsen, “Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Crime and Criminal Justice in the United States,” Crime and Justice, University of Chicago Press, 1997, page 327. 7. Paul G. Cassell, “Too Severe? A Defense of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines,” Stanford Law Review, 56 (2004): 1017-48. About the author Edwin S. Rubenstein is the president of ESR Research. He has worked as a senior economist at W.R. Grace & Co., and as research director at the Hudson Institute. His articles have appeared in Harvard Business Review, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and Investor’s Business Daily. He is the author of two books: The Right Data and From the Empire State to the Vampire State: New York in a Downward Transition. New Century Foundation Box 527 Oakton, VA 22124 (703) 716-0900 Arabs and Islam
Muslim World
Cousin marriage in the Arab world ranges from 8% in Morocco to 44% in Saudi Arabia. Source: http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content/6/1/17
Arab Christians have lower rates of inbreeding than Arab Muslims. Source: http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content/6/1/17
Inbreeding rates in Qatar, Yemen, the UAE, and other Muslim countries are increasing. Source: http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content/6/1/17
25% of Egyptians support suicide bombings. Source: http://www.pewglobal.org/files/2013/09/Pew-Global-Attitudes-Project-Extremism-Report-Final-9-10-135.pdf#page=6
36% of Muslims believe 9/11 was partially or wholly justified. Source: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/just-like-us-really
Arab countries have the highest rates of inbreeding in the world. Source: http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content/6/1/17
30% of Iraqis marry their cousins. Source: http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content/6/1/17
62% of Palestinians support the use of suicide bombings. Source: http://www.pewglobal.org/files/2013/09/Pew-Global-Attitudes-Project-Extremism-Report-Final-9-10-135.pdf#page=4
One in four Palestinians approves of attacks on US civilians in America. Source: http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/feb09/STARTII_Feb09_rpt.pdf#=page=7
87% of Egyptians agree with Al Qaeda’s goals. Source: http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/feb09/STARTII_Feb09_rpt.pdf#page=9
78% of Egyptians support attacks on US soldiers in the Middle East. Source: http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/feb09/STARTII_Feb09_rpt.pdf#page=11
35% of Palestinians have a favorable opinion of Al Qaeda. Source: http://www.pewglobal.org/files/2013/09/Pew-Global-Attitudes-Project-Extremism-Report-Final-9-10-135.pdf#page=8
One in eight Muslims worldwide has a favorable view of al Qaeda. Source: http://www.pewglobal.org/files/2013/09/Pew-Global-Attitudes-Project-Extremism-Report-Final-9-10-135.pdf#page=7
1 in 3 Muslims favorably views Hamas, a terrorist organization. Source: http://www.pewglobal.org/files/2013/09/Pew-Global-Attitudes-Project-Extremism-Report-Final-9-10-135.pdf#page=7
1 in 9 Arabs has a positive view of ISIS. Source: http://english.dohainstitute.org/content/6a355a64-5237-4d7a-b957-87f6b1ceba9b
Muslim countries produce so few patents that their contributions worldwide are “invisible”. Source: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7115/full/444026a.html
Muslim nations spend 1/7 as much of their GDP on R&D as the rest of the world. Source: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7115/full/444026a.html
Every Muslim nation produces less scientific research than the world average. Source: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7115/full/444026a.html
The average Muslim nation produces less than 1/10 as much scientific research as a non-Muslim nation. Source: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7115/full/444026a.html
Between 3% and 30% of Turkish college students believe honor killings are normal. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20061120222347/http://mobile.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L25341831.htm
1 in 3 Jordanian youth agree with honor killings. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ab.21485/abstract
As many as 50% of rural Afghani men engage in pedophilia. Source: http://foreignpolicy.com/2013/10/28/bacha-bazi-an-afghan-tragedy/
16% of Turks support suicide bombings. Source: http://www.pewglobal.org/files/2013/09/Pew-Global-Attitudes-Project-Extremism-Report-Final-9-10-135.pdf#page=5
More than half of Moroccans approve of attacks on American soldiers. Source: http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/feb09/STARTII_Feb09_rpt.pdf#page=11
The majority of Pakistanis grieved over Osama Bin Laden’s death. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2011/05/majority_of_our_pakistani_alli.html
20% of Turks believe that the Charlie Hebdo cartoonists “got what they deserved” for insulting Islam. Source: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/polls-finding-on-islam-and-violence-should-ring-alarm-bells.aspx?pageID=449&nID=77797&NewsCatID=412
ISIS is supported by 11.5% of Arabs, or 42 million people. Source: http://www.clarionproject.org/analysis/isis-has-least-42-million-supporters-arab-world
There is a “strong preference for first-cousin marriage in most Muslim countries”. Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/suppl_1/1779.full
74% of North African and Middle Easterners are anti-Semitic. Source: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/428146/more-than-few-islamic-extremists
Half of all Muslims are inbred. Source: https://pickeringpost.com/story/the-cost-of-islamic-incest/1316
Hundreds of millions of Muslims reject freedom of religion and freedom of expression. Source: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/428146/more-than-few-islamic-extremists
The four countries with the highest rates of child marriage are all majority Muslim. Source: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/top-five-countries-highest-rates-child-marriage-1444103
As many as 300 million Muslims may support ISIS. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/put_refugees_in_fema_camps.html
ISIS support with Muslims globally ranges, conservatively, between 20-30% – as many as 500 million people. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/isis_and_us_believers_vs_agnostics.html
Rape of infidel women is part of Islamic law and Islamic tradition. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/islam_rape_and_the_fate_of_western_women.html
North America
62% of Canadian Muslims want Sharia law. Source: http://www.torontosun.com/2011/11/01/strong-support-for-shariah-in-canada
More than 1 in 3 Canadian Muslims refuses to repudiate Al Qaeda. Source: http://www.torontosun.com/2011/11/01/strong-support-for-shariah-in-canada
In 2008, 80% of Somali immigration to the United States was fraudulent. Source: http://www.startribune.com/new-somali-refugee-arrivals-in-minnesota-are-increasing/281197521/#1
One in four young Muslims in America believes that terrorism is justified. Source: http://www.pewresearch.org/files/old-assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
One in twenty Muslim Americans favorably views Al-Qaeda. Source: http://www.people-press.org/2011/08/30/muslim-americans-no-signs-of-growth-in-alienation-or-support-for-extremism/
8% of American Muslims believe that Al-Qaeda’s beliefs are Islamic and correct. Source: http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/150612-CSP-Polling-Company-Nationwide-Online-Survey-of-Muslims-Topline-Poll-Data.pdf#page=5
9% of Muslims in America believe that ISIS’s beliefs are Islamic and correct. Source: http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/150612-CSP-Polling-Company-Nationwide-Online-Survey-of-Muslims-Topline-Poll-Data.pdf#page=5
11% of Muslims in America believe that Sharia law must be imposed worldwide through Jihad. Source: http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/150612-CSP-Polling-Company-Nationwide-Online-Survey-of-Muslims-Topline-Poll-Data.pdf#page=2
33% of Muslims in America believe that Sharia law is greater than the Constitution. Source: http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/150612-CSP-Polling-Company-Nationwide-Online-Survey-of-Muslims-Topline-Poll-Data.pdf#page=2
29% of Muslim Americans believe that violence against those who insult Islam is acceptable. Source: http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/150612-CSP-Polling-Company-Nationwide-Online-Survey-of-Muslims-Topline-Poll-Data.pdf#page=3
One in four American Muslims believe that violence against Americans is acceptable as part of Jihad. Source: http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/150612-CSP-Polling-Company-Nationwide-Online-Survey-of-Muslims-Topline-Poll-Data.pdf#page=3
16% of American Muslims defines Jihad as “violent holy war against unbelievers of Islam”. Source: http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/150612-CSP-Polling-Company-Nationwide-Online-Survey-of-Muslims-Topline-Poll-Data.pdf#page=4
Immigration of Muslims to the West may increase terrorism and radicalization. Source: http://www.clarionproject.org/analysis/13-percent-syrian-refugees-support-isis-poll
Resettling refugees in the West is twelve times more expensive than caring for them in their own countries. Source: http://cis.org/High-Cost-of-Resettling-Middle-Eastern-Refugees
Immigrants to the West have high rates of consanguinity (inbreeding). Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419292/
Immigration to Europe and North America has raised the amount of inbreeding in our countries. Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/suppl_1/1779.full
The more contact Americans have with Muslims, the more “Islamophobic” they are. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/13/opinion/sunday/the-rise-of-hate-search.html
Caring for one Middle Eastern refugee in America costs $64,370 over five years. Source: http://cis.org/High-Cost-of-Resettling-Middle-Eastern-Refugees
90% of Middle Eastern immigrants to the United States do not pay income tax and receive money from the government. Source: http://cis.org/High-Cost-of-Resettling-Middle-Eastern-Refugees
91.4% of refugees in America are on food stamps. Source: http://cis.org/High-Cost-of-Resettling-Middle-Eastern-Refugees
Europe (General)
65% of European Muslims believe that Sharia law is more important than the law of their country. Source: https://www.wzb.eu/sites/default/files/u6/koopmans_englisch_ed.pdf#page=2
European Muslims are 7.5x more likely to be fundamentalists than Christians. Source: https://www.wzb.eu/sites/default/files/u6/koopmans_englisch_ed.pdf#page=5
45% of European Muslims believe that Jews cannot be trusted. Source: https://www.wzb.eu/sites/default/files/u6/koopmans_englisch_ed.pdf#page=3
60% of European Muslims are explicitly homophobic. This is not due to poverty or education. Source: https://www.wzb.eu/sites/default/files/u6/koopmans_englisch_ed.pdf#page=3
The children of Muslim immigrants in Europe claim to face more discrimination than their parents. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/16/business/international/europe-must-plan-for-immigration-juggernaut.html?_r=0
Migrants to Europe are twice as likely to be unemployed as White Europeans. Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/07/closing-european-harbors/395321/
Migrants to Europe are twice as likely to drop out of school as White Europeans. Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/07/closing-european-harbors/395321/
One of best predictors of crime among migrants to Europe is the prevalence of Islam in their home country. Source: http://openpsych.net/ODP/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Kirkegaard2014CrimeIncomeAndEmploymentAmongImmigrantGroupsInNorwayAndFinland.pdf#page=1
Support for terrorism among Muslims in Europe is increasing with newer generations. Source: http://www.pewresearch.org/files/old-assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
13% of Syrian ‘refugees’ support ISIS. Source: http://www.clarionproject.org/analysis/13-percent-syrian-refugees-support-isis-poll
More than 20 percent of Muslim migrants entering Europe may have ties to
ISIS-linked groups. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/put_refugees_in_fema_camps.html
75 to 80 percent of migrants entering Europe are military-age males in generally good health. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/put_refugees_in_fema_camps.html
“Two in every 100 Syrian migrants smuggled into Europe are ISIS-trained jihadists”. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/coming_to_a_city_near_you_islamic_terrorism.html
Non-White migrants in Europe account for one in three new HIV infections. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2015/11/muslim_invaders_spreading_hiv_across_europe_at_an_alarming_rate.html
Germany
There are few immigrants in German’s university-track high schools. Source: http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany-s-immigrants-integration-in-theory-alienation-in-practice-a-433006.html
Germany’s choice to accept migrants will cost at least 11 billion dollars. Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/europes-border-crisis/refugee-crisis-unease-mixes-empathy-germany-n433106
30% of ‘Syrian’ immigrants to Germany are fraudulent. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/11891219/Refugee-crisis-Many-migrants-falsely-claim-to-be-Syrians-Germany-says-as-EU-tries-to-ease-tensions.html
Only 1 in 10 Muslims migrants arriving in Germany is employable. Source: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/13/how-much-longer-can-germany-keep-can-their-doors-to-refugees
One in eight Muslims in Germany believes that terrorism is justified. Source: http://www.pewresearch.org/files/old-assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
Germany will be a Muslim Turkish nation by 2050 if demographic trends continue. Source: http://www.frontpagemag.com/point/183720/80-turkish-muslim-settlers-germany-live-welfare-daniel-greenfield
3 million Turks came to Germany as “guest workers”, but 80% of them now live on welfare. Source: http://www.frontpagemag.com/point/183720/80-turkish-muslim-settlers-germany-live-welfare-daniel-greenfield
Accepting a single refugee costs Germany $14,500 per year. Source: http://cis.org/High-Cost-of-Resettling-Middle-Eastern-Refugees
One in fifty Germans supports ISIS. Source: https://www.rt.com/news/181076-isis-islam-militans-france/
80% of Muslim Turks in Germany are unemployed and live on welfare. Source: http://www.frontpagemag.com/point/183720/80-turkish-muslim-settlers-germany-live-welfare-daniel-greenfield
70% of the children of Turks in Germany lack the equivalent of a high school degree. Source: http://www.frontpagemag.com/point/183720/80-turkish-muslim-settlers-germany-live-welfare-daniel-greenfield
UK
1 in 12 British schoolchildren is Muslim, and the Muslim population will increase for “many decades”. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/11406700/Number-of-Muslim-children-in-Britain-doubles-in-a-decade.html
One in three British Muslims does not speak English. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/11406700/Number-of-Muslim-children-in-Britain-doubles-in-a-decade.html
55% of Pakistanis in the UK are married to their cousins. Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/newsnight/4442010.stm
British Pakistanis make up 3% of the population but 33% of genetically diseased children due to inbreeding. Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/newsnight/4442010.stm
All available studies find that non-European immigrants to Britain cost about $10 billion/year. Source: http://www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/briefings/fiscal-impact-immigration-uk#kp3
British Muslims are twice as likely as British Christians to be unemployed. Source: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_310454.pdf
Britain will become a Muslim country by 2050 if demographic trends continue. Source: http://www.thecommentator.com/article/3770/the_islamic_future_of_britain
At least 85 legally binding Sharia courts operate in Britain. Source: http://www.civitas.org.uk/pdf/ShariaLawOrOneLawForAll.pdf#page=85
32% of Muslim university students in Britain believe that killing in the name of religion is acceptable. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/wikileaks-files/london-wikileaks/8304838/UK-MUSLIM-DEMOGRAPHICS-C-RE8-02527.html
28% of British Muslims would like for Britain to become a fundamentalist Islamic state. Source: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/many-british-muslims-put-islam-first/
68% of British Muslims support criminalizing criticism of Islam. Source: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/many-british-muslims-put-islam-first/
3 out of 4 British Muslims support criminalizing drawings of Mohammed. Source: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/many-british-muslims-put-islam-first/
9% of British Muslims define themselves as “hardcore Islamists”. Source: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/many-british-muslims-put-islam-first/
Only 3% of British Muslims support free speech. Source: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/many-british-muslims-put-islam-first/
0/500 British Muslims believe that homosexuality is morally acceptable. Source: http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/may/07/muslims-britain-france-germany-homosexuality
One in sixteen young Muslims in Britain believe honor killings are acceptable. Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2117003/Honour-violence-acceptable-say-young-British-Asians.html
18% of young Muslims in Britain believe honor violence is acceptable. Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2117003/Honour-violence-acceptable-say-young-British-Asians.html
Despite being less than 5% of the population, more than 20% of British prisoners are Muslim. Source: http://metro.co.uk/2012/12/07/one-in-five-young-men-in-our-jails-is-a-muslim-3305639/
Immigrants to Britain make up one fifth of rape and murder suspects. Source: http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/4437163/1-in-5-rape-and-murder-suspects-in-England-and-Wales-are-migrant.html
European migrants to the UK have improved public finances, while non-White immigration has cost money. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecoj.12181/abstract
30% of Muslims in Britain do not identify as British. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/wikileaks-files/london-wikileaks/8304838/UK-MUSLIM-DEMOGRAPHICS-C-RE8-02527.html
4% of British Muslims live in free housing. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/wikileaks-files/london-wikileaks/8304838/UK-MUSLIM-DEMOGRAPHICS-C-RE8-02527.html
More than 1 in 5 British Muslims claims to be disabled, higher than any other ethnic or religious group. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/wikileaks-files/london-wikileaks/8304838/UK-MUSLIM-DEMOGRAPHICS-C-RE8-02527.html
40% of British Muslims want Sharia law. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1510866/Poll-reveals-40pc-of-Muslims-want-sharia-law-in-UK.html
1 in 10 British Muslims supports honor killings. Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/5311244.stm
One in five British Muslims sympathize with the 7/7 terrorist attack. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1510866/Poll-reveals-40pc-of-Muslims-want-sharia-law-in-UK.html
17,000 honor crimes take place every year in Britain. Source: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/a-question-of-honour-police-say-17000-women-are-victims-every-year-780522.html
The number of honor crimes committed in Britain doubles every year. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/6835482/Tulay-Goren-murder-honour-crimes-doubling-every-year-figures-show.html
6% of Muslims in Britain are explicitly “disloyal” to Britain. Source: http://comres.co.uk/polls/bbc-radio-4-today-muslim-poll/
24% of Muslims in Britain believe that violence against those who publish images of Muhammad is justified. Source: http://comres.co.uk/polls/bbc-radio-4-today-muslim-poll/
45% of British Muslims believe that clerics preaching violence against the West are in line with mainstream Muslims. Source: http://comres.co.uk/polls/bbc-radio-4-today-muslim-poll/
7% of Muslims in Britain believe that Muslims should not have to obey British laws. Source: http://comres.co.uk/polls/bbc-radio-4-today-muslim-poll/
As many as 1.5 million British Muslims may sympathize with ISIS. Source: http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/muslim-leader-isis-supporting-brits-disenfranchised-6018357
21% of British Muslims believe that suicide attacks against the military can be justified. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20060226021802/http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf#page=48
16% of British Muslims would be indifferent if a family member joined Al-Qaeda. 2% would be proud. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20070703235844/http://www.populuslimited.com/poll_summaries/2006_07_04_Times_ITV.htm
7% of Muslims in Britain believe that suicide attacks in Britain can be justifiable. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20060226021802/http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf#page=43
5% of British Muslims believe suicide attacks by Muslims against Britain’s are justified. Source: http://image.guardian.co.uk/sys-files/Politics/documents/2005/07/26/Muslim-Poll.pdf#page=10
18% of British Muslims think the Muslim community has done too much to integrate into British society. Source: http://image.guardian.co.uk/sys-files/Politics/documents/2005/07/26/Muslim-Poll.pdf#page=20
One in three young Muslims in Britain believes that terrorism is justified. Source: http://www.pewresearch.org/files/old-assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
4% of British Muslims do not believe the Holocaust happened. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20060226021802/http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf#page=27
Most British Muslims do not believe that Muslims should participate in Holocaust remembrance. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20060226021802/http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf#page=27
46% of British Muslims believe the Jews control the media and politics. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20060226021802/http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf#page=28
37% of British Muslims believe British Jews are “legitimate targets” in the Israeli-Palestinian dispute. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20060226021802/http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf#page=28
16% of British Muslims believe suicide bombings in Israel can be justified. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20060226021802/http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf#page=43
7% of British Muslims believe suicide bombings against civilians can be justified. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20060226021802/http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf#page=48
13% of Muslims in the UK believe attacks by Al-Qaeda on the United States as justified. Source: http://web.archive.org/web/20050309020147/http://www.icmresearch.co.uk/reviews/2004/guardian-muslims-march-2004.asp
11% of British Muslims believe suicide bombings against the police can be justified. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20060226021802/http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf#page=48
9% of British Muslims believe suicide bombings against government workers can be justified. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20060226021802/http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf#page=48
In the British city of Birmingham, only one in three students is White. Source: http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/439027/Only-one-pupil-in-three-is-white-in-Birmingham
38% of British Muslims believe that foreign Muslims who incite hatred should be allowed to stay in the UK. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20050809075504/http://www.icmresearch.co.uk/reviews/2005/Guardian%20-%20muslims%20july05/Guardian%20Muslims%20jul05.asp
28% of British Muslims believe they bear little or no responsibility for rooting out religious extremism. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20050809075504/http://www.icmresearch.co.uk/reviews/2005/Guardian%20-%20muslims%20july05/Guardian%20Muslims%20jul05.asp
5% of British Muslims would not tell anyone if a fellow Muslim was planning a terror attack. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20050809075504/http://www.icmresearch.co.uk/reviews/2005/Guardian%20-%20muslims%20july05/Guardian%20Muslims%20jul05.asp
27% of Muslim students in the UK see a conflict between loyalty to the UK and loyalty to Muslims. Source: http://web.archive.org/web/20060510191210/http://www.fosis.org.uk/sac/FullReport.pdf#page=17
10% of Muslim students in the UK wouldn’t report a Muslim planning terrorism to the police. 10% more refuse to answer. Source: http://web.archive.org/web/20060510191210/http://www.fosis.org.uk/sac/FullReport.pdf#page=36
In Britain, Muslims make up 21% of youth criminals. Immigrants all together make up 45%. Source: http://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/hugely-disproportionate-number-of-gypsy-inmates-in-youth-prisons-a3137441.html
In Britain, more Muslims join ISIS than join the British army. Source: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/428146/more-than-few-islamic-extremists
Caring for one refugee for one year costs Britain £24,000. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/11941580/Each-Syrian-refugee-to-cost-Britain-24000-a-year.html
73% of Tuberculosis cases in Britain occur to people born outside the UK. Source: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/360335/TB_Annual_report__4_0_300914.pdf#page=7
80% of Tuberculosis cases in London occur to people born outside of the UK. Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-34637968
7% of the British population backs ISIS. Source: https://www.rt.com/news/181076-isis-islam-militans-france/
In the United Kingdom, there may be as many as 1 million victims of Muslim rapists. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/islam_rape_and_the_fate_of_western_women.html
Europe-Sweden
The income gap between native Swedes and immigrants to Sweden is growing. Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/07/closing-european-harbors/395321/
25% of crime in Sweden was committed by immigrants, and 20% more was committed by children of immigrants. Source: http://www.thelocal.se/20051214/2683
Sweden is the rape capital of the West, likely due to immigration. Source: http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/5195/sweden-rape
85% of rapists in Sweden were non-Swedish immigrants. Source: http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/5195/sweden-rape
North African migrants to Sweden are 23 times more likely to rape than native Swedes. Source: http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/5195/sweden-rape
African migrants to Sweden are 16 times more likely to rape than ethnic Swedes. Source: http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/5195/sweden-rape
Iraqi migrants to Sweden are 2000% more likely to rape than native Swedes. Source: http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/5195/sweden-rape
16% of Swedish girls are not allowed to determine who they will marry. Source: https://archive.is/fUVK#selection-661.160-661.256
In Sweden, immigration has increased income inequality. Source: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:819935/FULLTEXT01.pdf#page=3
One in four Swedish women will be raped in her lifetime. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/islam_rape_and_the_fate_of_western_women.html
Immigrants to Sweden make 60% of what native Swedes earn, and this number has barely changed in 25 years. Source: http://www.aei.org/publication/ikeamerica-should-the-us-really-be-more-like-sweden-a-qa-with-economist-tino-sanandaji/
Immigration to Sweden is a net cost even in the long run. Source: http://www.tino.us/2015/12/langtidsutredningen-ett-bombnedslag-i-invandringsdebatten/
Sweden is the least successful nation at integrating immigrants in the world. Source: http://www.aei.org/publication/ikeamerica-should-the-us-really-be-more-like-sweden-a-qa-with-economist-tino-sanandaji/
African and Middle Eastern immigrants to Sweden with university degrees are less literate than Swedes without degrees. Source: http://www.tino.us/2015/12/langtidsutredningen-ett-bombnedslag-i-invandringsdebatten/
35% of immigrants to Sweden lack sufficient skills in both reading and math. Source: http://www.tino.us/2015/12/langtidsutredningen-ett-bombnedslag-i-invandringsdebatten/
Denmark
Immigrants to Denmark are twice as likely as native Danes to commit violent crime. Source: http://www.dst.dk/pukora/epub/upload/17961/indv2013.pdf
64% of children born to Arabs in Copenhagen are not “functionally literate”. Source: http://www.bkchefer.dk/uploads/File/Rockwoolfonden.pdf#page=5
Immigration to Denmark has on net cost billions of dollars. Source: http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/putting-a-price-on-foreigners-strict-immigration-laws-save-denmark-billions-a-759716.html
Because of inbreeding, children of Muslim immigrants to Denmark are three times more likely to be intellectually disabled than native Danes. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppe.12195/abstract
More than half of rapists in Denmark are immigrants. Source: http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/5195/sweden-rape
77% of Muslims in Denmark believe that the Koran should be followed completely, an increase since 9 years ago. Source: https://www.rt.com/news/319150-denmark-muslims-koran-laws/
40% of Muslims in Denmark believe Sharia should be part of the country’s laws. Source: https://www.rt.com/news/319150-denmark-muslims-koran-laws/
One in ten Muslims in Denmark supports the exclusive rule of Sharia law in the country. Source: https://www.rt.com/news/319150-denmark-muslims-koran-laws/
In Copenhagen, 84% of people accused of serious crimes are immigrants. Source: http://10news.dk/?p=1149
In Copenhagen, 90% of people accused of serious crime are non-citizens. Source: http://10news.dk/?p=1149
The lifetime cost of non-European immigrants to Denmark is 2.5 million Kronar, or $450,000. Source: http://www.fm.dk/db/filarkiv/18669/Rapport_globalisering.pdf
Half of convicted rapists in Denmark are Muslims. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/islam_rape_and_the_fate_of_western_women.html
France
Muslim are only 12% of France’s population but make up 70% of France’s prisoners. Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/28/AR2008042802560.html
In France, 70% of burglaries are committed by first or second generation immigrants. Source: http://www.atlantico.fr/decryptage/aucun-lien-entre-immigration-et-delinquance-france-peu-genereuse-avec-immigres-radiographie-quelques-cliches-bien-pensants-peau-1875772.html
In France, more than 40% of young Muslims believe that terrorism is justified. Source: http://www.pewresearch.org/files/old-assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
In France, 96% of rejected asylum seekers remain in the country. Source: http://www.thelocal.fr/20151020/france-deports-just-four-percent-of-asylum-seekers
One in five young French Muslims believes that terrorism is often or sometimes justified. Source: http://www.pewresearch.org/files/old-assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
15% of French people back ISIS. Source: https://www.rt.com/news/181076-isis-islam-militans-france/
40% of French Muslims do not have French friends. Source: http://www.pressesdesciencespo.fr/fr/livre/?GCOI=27246100034710
There are 751 Muslim ghettos in France. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/paris_isis_and_the_externalization_of_evil.html
In France, 93% of Muslims vote for socialism. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/paris_isis_and_the_externalization_of_evil.html
Norway
Second generation African and Asian immigrants to Norway have lower incomes than their parents. Source: https://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/rapp_201121/rapp_201121.pdf
Immigrants to Norway from Africa or Southeast Asia are 3x more likely to commit crime than native Norwegians. Source: https://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/rapp_201121/rapp_201121.pdf
Somalis in Norway are 4.4 times more likely to rape than native Norwegians. Source: https://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/rapp_201121/rapp_201121.pdf
African immigrants to Norway are 3 times more likely to rape than ethnic Norwegians. Source: https://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/rapp_201121/rapp_201121.pdf
The descendants of African immigrants to Norway are 60% more likely than their parents to commit crimes. Source: https://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/rapp_201121/rapp_201121.pdf
The children of Asian immigrants to Norway are 80% more likely than their parents to commit a crime. Source: https://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/rapp_201121/rapp_201121.pdf
Non-White immigrants in Oslo committed every rape from 2006 to 2010. 80% of the victims were Norwegian women. Source: http://www.nrk.no/norge/rekordmange-overfallsvoldtekter-1.6944861
Immigrants to Norway retire on ‘disability’ sooner than do ethnic Norwegians. Source: http://www.emnbelgium.be/sites/default/files/publications/nou_2011_7_perspective_andsummary.pdf#page=9
Norway’s immigration population more than doubled, from 5% to 12%, in just 10 years. Source: http://www.emnbelgium.be/sites/default/files/publications/nou_2011_7_perspective_andsummary.pdf#page=6
Asian and African immigrants to Norway have “significantly” lower rates of employment than ethnic Norwegians. Source: http://www.emnbelgium.be/sites/default/files/publications/nou_2011_7_perspective_andsummary.pdf#page=13
Humanitarian migration to Norway is “dominated by groups with poor qualifications”. Source: http://www.emnbelgium.be/sites/default/files/publications/nou_2011_7_perspective_andsummary.pdf#page=16
The lifetime cost of a non-European immigrant to Norway is 4.1 million Krone, or $660,000. Source: http://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/rapp_201215/rapp_201215.pdf
Caring for one refugee in Norway costs $24,000 per year. Source: http://cis.org/High-Cost-of-Resettling-Middle-Eastern-Refugees
In Oslo, one in ten women over the age of 15 has been raped by Muslims. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/islam_rape_and_the_fate_of_western_women.html
Spain
70% of Spain’s prisoners are Muslim, although Muslims are only 1.5% of the Spanish population.
25% of Muslims in Spain believe that terrorism is justified. Source: http://www.pewresearch.org/files/old-assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
Spanish youth are more supportive of terrorism than their parents. Source: http://www.pewresearch.org/files/old-assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
Spain’s population of foreign-born people increased fivefold in 7 years. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/94/1/237
Belgium
16% of young Muslim men in Belgium believe that terrorism is acceptable. Source: http://www.hln.be/hln/nl/1275/Islam/article/detail/1619036/2013/04/22/Zestien-procent-moslimjongens-vindt-terrorisme-aanvaardbaar.dhtml
In Belgium, the inbreeding rate among Muslim immigrants is continuing to remain high. Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/suppl_1/1779.full
Ireland
In Ireland, immigrants account for one quarter of child abuse cases. Source: http://www.independent.ie/breaking-news/irish-news/immigrant-parent-families-make-up-264-of-child-protection-cases-says-report-34245482.html
Race
Race (General)
Human evolution is not merely ongoing but is in fact accelerating. Source: http://discovermagazine.com/2009/mar/09-they-dont-make-homo-sapiens-like-they-used-to
Human races are diverging into separate species, not mixing into one. Source: http://discovermagazine.com/2009/mar/09-they-dont-make-homo-sapiens-like-they-used-to
The average H-1B immigrant is less intelligent and qualified than the average American. Source: http://heather.cs.ucdavis.edu/h1b10min.html
Immigration has reduced the average skill level of Americans. Source: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/424796/immigration-wave-post-1965-pew-study
54% of college educated immigrants in America are not proficient in literacy. Source: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/424796/immigration-wave-post-1965-pew-study
15% of the human genome has been under selective pressures since the races separated. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Troublesome-Inheritance-Genes-Human-History/dp/1594204462
Scientific discussion of race has increased since 1946 onwards. Source: http://www.ln.edu.hk/philoso/staff/sesardic/Race.pdf#page-15
Melanin concentration may directly correlate with aggression. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886912000840
Race is a better predictor of crime than poverty. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
The purpose of section 8 housing is to move Blacks from elite urban areas to middle class suburbs. Source: http://www.unz.com/article/race-and-crime-in-america/
The percentage of Blacks and Hispanics in an area, not poverty, is the best predictor of crime. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
High income does not help Middle Eastern, East Indian and Asian men date White women. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/3/807.abstract
Women who claim to be willing to date any race are lying and are just as discriminatory as women with explicit racial preferences. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=895442
Half of hate crimes are Blacks and Hispanics attacking each other. Source: https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=7337
White and Asian women have more successful marriages than Black or Hispanic women. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr049.pdf#page=7
Blacks and Hispanics have less ability to delay gratification than Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Racism is an “automatic” part of human behavior. Source: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00108/abstract
Men with high testosterone, who are also more attractive, are more likely to be racist. Source: http://motherboard.vice.com/blog/ironically-a-mans-face-can-tell-you-if-hes-likely-to-act-like-a-racist
Of the 30 most deadly mass shootings in America, non-whites committed 36%, a slight overrepresentation. Source: http://www.vdare.com/posts/of-the-thirty-deadliest-shooters-at-least-a-dozen-are-not-white-males
Most students accused of sexual assault on college campuses are non-White. Source: http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/argument-sexual-assault-race-harvard-law-school
Whites
White men are pound-for-pound stronger than Black or Hispanic men. Source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/508
Germanic/Nordic people have lower time preference than any other group. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1481443
Asians, Hispanics and Blacks would rather live among White people than among other minorities. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/3/807.abstract
90% of gang members are non-White. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Non-Jewish Whites are the most underrepresented group in top colleges. Source: http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/the-myth-of-american-meritocracy/
The Western aesthetic of big eyes and pale skin is universally considered appealing. Source: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/03/23/about-face
There are more significant artistic figures from West than from the rest of the world combined. Source: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12129-012-9276-9
Blacks
Europeans and Asians are subject to more recent evolution than Africans. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/20/science/20adapt.html
48% of African Americans have Herpes Simplex Virus. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/stdconference/2000/media/AfAmericans2000.htm
Gonorrhea rates are 30 times higher in African Americans than in Whites. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/stdconference/2000/media/AfAmericans2000.htm
Police hesitate longer to shoot Black suspects than White suspects. Source: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11292-014-9204-9
Over 100 White women are raped or sexually assaulted by Black men every day in the United States. Source: http://archive.frontpagemag.com/readArticle.aspx?ARTID=26368
Blacks are overrepresented in serial killings, and this overrepresentation is increasing. Source: http://maamodt.asp.radford.edu/Serial%20Killer%20Information%20Center/Serial%20Killer%20Statistics.pdf#page=3
Blacks are overrepresented among child abusers, and this isn’t due to biased reporting. Source: http://www.theroot.com/articles/culture/2011/03/Black_childabuse_statistics_report_debunks_bias_assumptions.html
39% of all cop killers are Black, although Blacks are only 12% of the population. Source: https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/leoka/2013/officers-feloniously-killed/felonious_topic_page_2013.pdf#page=4
73% of Black babies are born out of wedlock. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_01.pdf#page=8
The average Black has an IQ score 1 standard deviation (15 IQ points) lower than the average White. Source: http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/research/correlation/intelligence.pdf
The Black-White IQ gap in America is equal to the gap in South Africa, even though SA is ruled by Blacks. Source: http://psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/ravensiii.pdf
The Black-White IQ gap exists even when both races are raised in identical environments. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016028969290028P
93% of Black men who are murdered are killed by other Black men. Source: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/bvvc.pdf#page=3
The Black-White IQ gap still exists and has not decreased in size. Source: http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/wp-content/uploads/The%20totality%20of%20available%20evidence%20shows%20the%20race%20IQ%20gap%20still%20remains.pdf
70% of Black children are born out of wedlock. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2625893
Blacks commit 56% of all robberies, despite being only 12% of the population. Source: https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2013/crime-in-the-u.s.-2013/tables/table-43
Blacks commit 50% of all murders, despite being only 12% of the population. Source: https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2013/crime-in-the-u.s.-2013/tables/table-43
Despite making up less than 12% of the US population, Blacks commit 1 in every 3 rapes. Source: https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2013/crime-in-the-u.s.-2013/tables/table-43
Young Black men kill 14 times more often than young White men. Source: http://ideas.time.com/2013/08/22/viewpoint-dont-ignore-race-in-christopher-lanes-murder/#ixzz2ciWBxj00
Africans have higher rates of a gene associated with violence. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1913922/
Black women are four times more likely to be overweight than White women. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/3/807.abstract
Blacks are seven times more likely than Whites to commit murder. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Students of all races perform worse in schools with more Black students. Source: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/09/24/study-finds-students-underperform-in-schools-with-large-Black-populations
Blacks have an average brain size of 1267 cubic cm, compared to Whites at 1347 cm. Source: http://psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/RandRProgressIntell2003.pdf
97% of White men refuse to date Black women. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/3/807.abstract
The percentage of Blacks in a city, not poverty, is the best predictor of crime. Source: http://www.unz.com/article/race-and-crime-in-america/
Blacks are 600% more likely than non-Blacks to commit murder. Source: http://www.unz.com/article/race-and-crime-in-america/
In New York City, 1% of people arrested for shootings were White, while 74% were Black. Source: http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/analysis_and_planning/enforcement_report_year_end_2014.pdf#page=17
In New York City, 43% of people arrested for rape were Black. Source: http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/analysis_and_planning/enforcement_report_year_end_2014.pdf#page=8
In New York City, 61% of people arrested for robbery were Black. Source: http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/analysis_and_planning/enforcement_report_year_end_2014.pdf#page=10
Blacks have lower emotional intelligence than Whites. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ijsa.12069/abstract
In Canada, Blacks comprise 2% of the population but 6% of prisoners. Source: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/research/r144-eng.shtml
Blacks are more likely than Whites to be narcissistic. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656611000912
67% of people arrested for gun crime in London are Black, although Blacks are only 12% of the population. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/7856787/Violent-inner-city-crime-the-figures-and-a-question-of-race.html
Black men in London are only 12% of the population, but commit 32% of rape. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/7856787/Violent-inner-city-crime-the-figures-and-a-question-of-race.html
1 in four South African men has admitted to rape. Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8107039.stm
Blacks are 90% more likely than Whites to be psychopathic. Source: http://psycnet.apa.org/?&fa=main.doiLanding&doi=10.1037/0022-006X.76.5.893
A Black person in Britain is twice as likely to be in jail as to be in university. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1449468/Twice-as-many-Blacks-in-jail-as-at-university.html
70% of Ethiopian women report having been physically or sexually abused. Source: http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736%2806%2969523-8.pdf
Blacks are more prone to psychopathy and less capable of empathy than Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks commit more violent crime against Whites than against other Blacks. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are 39 times more likely to commit a violent crime against Whites than vice versa. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are 136 times more likely to commit a violent crime against Whites than vice versa. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are 2 times more likely to commit a hate crime against Whites than vice versa. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are three times more likely than Whites to commit White-collar crime (fraud, bribery, racketeering, embezzlement). Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Areas with more Black people have higher rates of crime. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Crime-Correlates-Lee-Ellis/dp/0123736129
Blacks assign less value to marriage than Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks are significantly less likely than Whites to have harmonious or satisfying marriages. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks are more likely to default on loans than other races. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks are 80% more likely than Whites to neglect their children. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks are more likely to have ADHD than Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks have less moral understanding that Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks are more reckless than Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks are twice as likely to subject their children to severe violence than Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Black men are four times more likely to beat their wives than White men. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Black women are more than twice as likely as White women to abuse their husbands. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Black youth are two and a half times as likely as White youth to have raped someone. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
In London, Blacks are six times more likely than Whites to be imprisoned. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks are more likely to kill their spouses than other races. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks are 50% more likely to cheat on their spouses than Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks have less perseverance than other races. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Black college students have poorer grades than students of other races with the same IQ. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks do less homework than Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Even after adjusting for SAT scores, Blacks have worse college grades than Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Blacks are four times as likely as Whites to murder their infants. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Despite $1 trillion in aid from the West, per capita GDP in Africa has declined since 1960. Source: http://new.spectator.co.uk/2014/07/imperialism-is-back-and-this-time-its-politically-correct/
Only 12% of Black eighth grade males are proficient in math. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/09/education/09gap.html?_r=0
Academically, the average poor White male does as well as Blacks who aren’t in poverty. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/09/education/09gap.html?_r=0
Only 12% of Black fourth grade males are proficient in reading. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/09/education/09gap.html?_r=0
85% of crime between Blacks and Whites is committed by Blacks. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are more likely than other races to be gay or bisexual. Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/19/black-gays-lgbt-community_n_1989859.html
In just two years, more blacks were killed by other blacks than died from 80 years of lynching. Source: http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2015/11/28/5-devastating-facts-black-black-crime/
Blacks are just 13% of the American population but have committed half of all murders for the last 30 years. Source: http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2015/11/28/5-devastating-facts-black-black-crime/
Europeans have been awarded 540 Nobel prizes. Africans have been awarded one. Source: http://mankindquarterly.org/archive/paper.php?p=647
Blacks are 60-80% more likely than Whites to lie about how much crime they commit. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019188690200363X
Black immigrants to Western Europe are “markedly” more likely to have schizophrenia than White people. Source: http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/36/4/751.short
Blacks are twice as likely to be schizophrenic than Whites, even after adjusting for income. Source: http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/36/4/751.short
Black men are more likely to lie about drug use than White men. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2495080/
Blacks are six times more likely to lie about their cocaine usage than White people. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/trump_a_liar_the_real_story_about_deceit_in_racial_crime_numbers.html
In Britain, Black people are six times more likely than Whites to be schizophrenic. Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/807945.stm
90% of interracial violence between blacks and Whites is committed by Blacks. The ration should be 1-1. Source: http://news.investors.com/ibd-editorials-viewpoint/082613-668778-epidemic-of-white-on-black-violence-is-a-fraud.htm?p=full
Black men are over a hundred times more likely to rape a White woman than vice versa. Source: http://news.investors.com/ibd-editorials-viewpoint/082613-668778-epidemic-of-white-on-black-violence-is-a-fraud.htm?p=full
Most South Africans believe that life was better under apartheid. Source: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/398136/end-south-africa-josh-gelernter
Life expectancy in South Africa has decreased since apartheid ended. Source: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/398136/end-south-africa-josh-gelernter
The South African murder rate is the 10th highest in the world. White farmers are killed 4x more often than the general population. Source: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/398136/end-south-africa-josh-gelernter
Blacks in South Africa are not indigenous inhabitants, but rather arrived just before White explorers. Source: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/398136/end-south-africa-josh-gelernter
In South Africa, a child is raped every three minutes (175,000 children/year). Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8107039.stm
In urban areas of South Africa, more than one in three men has admitted to committing rape. Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/11/27/south-africa-rape-study-m_n_788722.html
In South Africa, rape is seen as “a legitimate activity” and committed out of boredom. Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/11/27/south-africa-rape-study-m_n_788722.html
In South Africa, 7% of men have participated in gang rape. Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/11/27/south-africa-rape-study-m_n_788722.html
In South Africa, 78% of men have committed violence against women. Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/11/27/south-africa-rape-study-m_n_788722.html
“Out of the 1500 [chess] grandmasters in the world, only three or four are black.” Source: http://worldchess.com/2015/12/15/the-racial-gap-for-titles-among-american-players/
Only 54% of Black men between 25-34 have high school degrees, are employed, and are not currently incarcerated. Source: http://blogs.baruch.cuny.edu/lexingtonreview/?p=36
Unlike all other world cultures, sub-Saharan Africans had no mythologies regarding the stars or night sky. Source: http://www.folklore.ee/rl/pubte/ee/araamat/2009/3berezkin.pdf#page=3
Sub-Saharan Africans are the only group of people without detailed mythology or creation stories. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Origins-Worlds-Mythologies-Michael-Witzel/dp/0199812853
Half of Black women have herpes. 80% who have it don’t know it. Source: http://www.theroot.com/articles/culture/2010/03/nearly_half_of_black_women_have_herpes.html
1200 people, mostly blacks, die over sneakers every year. Source: http://video.gq.com/watch/sneakerheadz-1-200-people-die-over-sneakers-each-year
35% to 50% of sub-Saharan Africans are inbred. Source: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/pellissier20120526
Interracial Children and Couples
White-Asian children are twice as likely as Asians to have mental illness. Source: http://news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=8732
“Nonwhite daters gain status by dating any White. Whites, on the other hand, have little to gain by dating minorities.” Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/3/807.abstract
White/Black babies are less healthy than White babies. Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2867623/
Mixed race couples are more likely to have stillborn babies than same-race couples. Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15994621
Black-White children are more likely than both Black and Whites to make poor decisions. Source: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14192
90% of women who have a child with a Black man never marry the father. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2625893
77% of women who have children with Black men earn less than $10,000 a year. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2625893
98% of White women who have children with Black men are not financially supported by the father. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2625893
The average White woman who has kids with a Black man earns $7250 a year, excluding welfare. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2625893
97% of White women who have children with Black men have used welfare. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2625893
97% of Black fathers who have children with White women are not active in their children’s lives. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2625893
Race-mixers may give less parental support to their children because of greater genetic distance. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2008.01110.x/abstract
97% of interracial (Black man, White women) children are born out of wedlock. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2625893
White-Black couples have more partner violence than White couples and as much violence as Black couples. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3611980/
Bias against miscegenation is likely biological in origin. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19422626
Interracial marriages have a 23.5% chance of divorce, compared to 13% for same-race couples. Source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4145377
Mixed race kids suffer from low self-esteem, social isolation, and poor family dynamics. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448064/
Mixed race children are more likely to have health problems, high stress, smoke, and drink. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448064/
Interracial couples devote less time to maintaining their household than same race couples. Source: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-1623-4_9
interracial people cannot receive organ donations. Source: http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1993074,00.html
Asians who marry outside of their race are less educated than Asians who do not. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/91/2/453
90% of White women who have kids with black men are unemployed or earn less than 10K a year. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2625893
White women who marry minorities tend to be poor and to “marry up” in socioeconomic status. Source: http://paa2008.princeton.edu/papers/80046#page=7
Slim, slender, athletic, fit or average White women are 7x more likely than fat White women to refuse to date Blacks. Source: http://paa2008.princeton.edu/papers/80046#page=23
Better educated men and women are more likely to exclude blacks as romantic partners. Source: http://paa2008.princeton.edu/papers/80046#page=23
Asians
40% of Asian women refuse to date Asian men. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/3/807.abstract
Asian women find White men more attractive than Asian men. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/3/807.abstract
Asians are nine times more likely than Whites to be members of gangs. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Evidence indicates Asians have genetically less individuality and more conformity than White people. Source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/10/27/rspb.2009.1650.full
Asians are more likely to default on financial obligations than Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Between one in three and one five urban Korean women have had plastic surgery. Source: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/03/23/about-face
Half of young Korean women have had plastic surgery. Source: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/03/23/about-face
Koreans are more concerned with physical appearance than Westerners. Source: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/03/23/about-face
Hispanics
64% of Hispanics have IQ scores too low to enter the military. Source: http://takimag.com/article/frequently_asked_questions_about_the_jason_richwine_brouhaha_steve_sailer/print#ixzz2TPXmpNgG
Hispanics receive shorter prison sentences than Whites for the same crimes. Source: http://people.terry.uga.edu/mustard/sentencing.pdf
Hispanics are imprisoned at a rate 2.9 times that of White people. Source: http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/fragmented-future/
The children of Hispanic immigrants have a higher crime rate than the immigrants themselves. Source: http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/fragmented-future/
Mexicans born in the United States are more likely to be born out of wedlock than Mexicans born in Mexico. Source: http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/fragmented-future/
48% of Hispanics are born out of wedlock, double the rate of illegitimate White births. Source: http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/fragmented-future/
On any given day, there are between 30,000 and 45,000 illegal aliens in the nation’s prisons and jails. Source: http://cis.org/ImmigrantCrime
Non-citizen Hispanics are 29% of the federal prison population, despite only being 5% of the population. Source: http://cis.org/ImmigrantCrime
25-50% of gang members are illegal aliens. Source: http://cis.org/ImmigrantCrime
Immigrants are four times more likely than native-born Americans to fail to graduate high school. Source: http://cis.org/ImmigrantCrime
Hispanic illegal aliens are only 5% of America’s population but 25% of drug offenders. Source: http://cis.org/ImmigrantCrime
Hispanic immigration has displaced African Americans and raised the Black crime rate. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/88/3/1393.abstract
Hispanics are 19 times more likely than Whites to be a gang member. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Hispanics are three times more likely to be in prison than Whites. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Hispanics are three times as likely as Whites to commit violent crime. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
1 in four inmates in American federal prison is a non-citizen. Source: http://cis.org/ImmigrantCrime
In America, non-citizen Hispanics are overrepresented among white collar crimes. Source: http://cis.org/ImmigrantCrime
Hispanics are 60% more likely than Whites to neglect their children. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
In New York City, 45% of people arrested for rape were Hispanic. Source: http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/analysis_and_planning/enforcement_report_year_end_2014.pdf#page=8
The share of college degrees earned by Hispanics, already very low, has not changed in two decades. Source: http://www.city-journal.org/2008/eon1008hm.html
The Hispanic high school drop out rate of 50% is unchanged across generations. Source: http://www.city-journal.org/2008/eon1008hm.html
Because of demographic changes and low college attendance among Hispanics, per capita income in California is expected to decline. Source: http://www.city-journal.org/2008/eon1008hm.html
50% of Hispanic children are born out of wedlock, and this rate is rising rapidly. Source: http://www.city-journal.org/2008/eon1008hm.html
Amerindians
In Canada, Amerindians comprise 3% of the population but 18% of the prison population. Source: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/research/r144-eng.shtml
Native Americans are more prone to psychopathy and less capable of empathy than any other race. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Native Americans are more likely than other races to have committed violent assaults. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Native American men are twice as likely as White men to beat their wives. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Native Americans are more likely to be unemployed than any other race. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Native Americans are four times as likely as Whites to commit infant homicide. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886901000290
Other Groups
Aboriginal Australians make up 2% if the Australian population but 27% of prisoners. Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4517.0~2014~Main%20Features~Prisoner%20characteristics,%20Australia~4
Maori natives are 15% of the population but account for half of New Zealand’s prisoners. Source: http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41654.htm
Gypsies are 5% of Britain’s prisoners but only .1% of Britain’s population. Source: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/mar/11/gypsies-roma-travellers-over-represented-jails-england-wales-prisons
Jews are overrepresented in top colleges relative to their academic achievements. Source: http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/the-myth-of-american-meritocracy/
75-80% of art dealers, curators, and critics are Jewish. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Pardes-Israel-Shamir/dp/1419606018
Alleles harmful to health are more common in Ashkenazi Jews than in the general population. Source: http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v12/n5/full/5201156a.html
2.3% of Jews are inbred. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14742164
The average Gypsy has an IQ below 80. Source: http://www.vdare.com/articles/indians-arent-that-intelligent-on-average
70% of Irish travellers, also known as gypsies, are unemployed. Source: http://www.cso.ie/en/newsandevents/pressreleases/2004pressreleases/2002censusofpopulationvolume8-irishtravellercommunity/
Gypsies are .5% of the Irish population but commit 4.4% of child neglect. Source: http://www.independent.ie/breaking-news/irish-news/immigrant-parent-families-make-up-264-of-child-protection-cases-says-report-34245482.html
Cousin marriage and uncle-niece marriage are common in many Sephardic Jewish communities. Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/suppl_1/1779.full
Native Americans have an average IQ of 87. Source: http://www.vdare.com/articles/indians-arent-that-intelligent-on-average
In Britain, Gypsies make up .1% of the population but 10% of serious youth criminals. Source: http://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/hugely-disproportionate-number-of-gypsy-inmates-in-youth-prisons-a3137441.html
Jews are 10% of Princeton’s students, an overrepresentation of 500%. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/1999/06/02/nyregion/princeton-puzzle-where-have-jewish-students-gone.html
Jews are between one quarter and one third of Ivy League college students. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/1999/06/02/nyregion/princeton-puzzle-where-have-jewish-students-gone.html
At Ivy League colleges, Jews are overrepresented and minorities are proportionally represented. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/1999/06/02/nyregion/princeton-puzzle-where-have-jewish-students-gone.html
In 1934, Jews held 38.5% of senior Soviet security posts. Source: http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3342999,00.html
Gender
Women and Sex Roles
Women are less likely to be employed in highly competitive jobs. Source: http://ftp.iza.org/dp8563.pdf#page=3
More prosperous, egalitarian and healthy nations have more psychological differences between men and women. Source: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2007-19165-013
More advanced societies have more differentiated gender roles. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19824299
Women commit about half of domestic violence. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178911000620
Wealthier countries have more developed sex roles. Source: http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/faculty/mariacharles/documents/charles_ARS2011.pdf
For women, more sex partners results in higher rates of divorce and worse life outcomes. Source: http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2003/pdf/Bookofcharts.pdf#page=6
Women with more than 20 sexual partners have an 80% chance of divorce. Source: http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2003/pdf/Bookofcharts.pdf#page=22
More sex partners causally increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol abuse. Source: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fulfillment-any-age/201304/the-lingering-psychological-effects-multiple-sex-partners
Men’s’ and women’s’ brains are wired differently. Source: http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/news/News_Releases/2013/12/verma/
Gender stereotypes are correct predictors of math and reading ability. Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/106/26/10593.abstract
A women’s number of sex partners is linearly linked to alcohol and drug abuse. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3752789/
College students who major in fields with a greater proportion of women have lower average IQ. Source: http://www.randalolson.com/2014/06/25/average-iq-of-students-by-college-major-and-gender-ratio/
Less attractive women are more likely to want careers. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22468947
Less traditional marriages are lower quality. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/10/25/sf.sos126.abstract
Couples who cohabit before marriage have lower quality marriages. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/10/25/sf.sos126.abstract
Gender differences in the West are the result of free choices made by innately different men and women. Source: http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/faculty/mariacharles/documents/charles_ARS2011.pdf
40% of women with more than 20 sex partners have an STD. Source: http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2003/pdf/Bookofcharts.pdf#page=19
Female veterans are six times more likely to commit suicide than women who didn’t serve in the military. Source: http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-female-veteran-suicide-20150608-story.html
Progressive/feminist women are less happy than their peers. Source: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/the_highbrow/2006/03/desperate_feminist_wives.html
Stay-at-home wives are more content than working wives. Source: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/the_highbrow/2006/03/desperate_feminist_wives.html
Women are less happy today than they were in the 1960’s and 70’s. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/26/business/26leonhardt.html
Couples with traditional gender roles are more sexually active than couples with egalitarian roles. Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2270399/Couples-stick-gender-roles-home-sex-20-times-year.html
Gays
Claims that gay parents are just as capable of raising children as straight parents are misrepresented. Source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657413
Between 24% and 90% of lesbians report being psychologically abused by their partners. Source: https://mainweb-v.musc.edu/vawprevention/lesbianrx/factsheet.shtml
Gay men are 60x more likely to have HIV than straight men. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462414/
46% of male homosexuals report being molested, as compared to only 7% of heterosexual men. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11501300
Gays are more likely than straight people to have mental illness. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2072932/
1/4 gay men in America have had over 1000 sex partners. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Homosexualities-Study-Diversity-Among-Women/dp/0671251503
43% of gay men have over 500 partners. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Homosexualities-Study-Diversity-Among-Women/dp/0671251503
Gay men are six times more likely to commit suicide than straight men. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Unequal-Opportunity-Disparities-Affecting-Bisexual/dp/0195301536
Gay men are 12x more likely to use amphetamines than straight men. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Unequal-Opportunity-Disparities-Affecting-Bisexual/dp/0195301536
Gay men are 10x more likely to use heroin than straight men. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Unequal-Opportunity-Disparities-Affecting-Bisexual/dp/0195301536
Liberal arguments in favor of homosexuality are based on logical fallacies. Source: http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=19028&lang=en
10 to 15 percent of older homosexuals have more than 1000 sex partners. Source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3813477
Gay people are 2-3x more likely to abuse alcohol than straight people. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Unequal-Opportunity-Disparities-Affecting-Bisexual/dp/0195301536
Up to 50% of lesbians have reported sexual abuse. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9360290
79% of homosexual men say over half of their sex partners are strangers. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Unequal-Opportunity-Disparities-Affecting-Bisexual/dp/0195301536
99.8% of lesbian, gay and bisexual teens will change their sexual orientation within 13 years. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048483
Two-thirds of men and women who were homosexual change their orientation to heterosexual five years later. Source: http://psycnet.apa.org/books/11261/004
Two thirds of self-identified lesbians later have heterosexual relationships. Source: http://psycnet.apa.org/books/11261/004
Identifying as lesbian, gay or bisexual does not end sexual questioning or confusion. Source: http://psycnet.apa.org/books/11261/004
One in eight gay men in London has HIV. Source: http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2014/11/18/13-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-london-living-with-hiv/
Gay men are twice as likely as straight men to be in interracial relationships. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/4/1423
In Australia, 25% of homosexuals have had more than 100 sex partners. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Gay men, who are 1.65% of the US population, account for 63% of the country’s syphilis cases. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
In 2010, homosexuals were about 200 times more likely than everyone else to be diagnosed with HIV. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Gay men are 15 times more likely to have Hepatitis B than everyone else. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Homosexuals are more to use illegal drugs and drink to excess than straight people. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Homosexuals are more likely than straight people to have anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and to commit suicide. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Gay men are 10-15 times more likely than straight men to have eating disorders. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
40% to 60% of serial killers are homosexuals. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Homosexual men are more likely to have been abused by their partners than straight men. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Monogamy is not a central feature of most homosexual relationships. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Married homosexual men are 50% more likely than straight couples to divorce. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
In the Netherlands, the average homosexual in a “steady relationship” has seven to eight affairs per year. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Over 20% of older homosexuals have had more than 500 different sex partners. Source: http://advindicate.com/articles/3022
The average gay man has several dozen sex partners per year. Source: http://advindicate.com/articles/3022
28% of homosexuals have had sex with over a thousand men. For straight men? Just 25% have had sex with more than 10 women. Source: http://advindicate.com/articles/3022
Most “long term relationships” between gay men last less than eight years. Source: http://advindicate.com/articles/3022
Among gay Canadian men in “committed relationships, only 25% were monogamous. Source: http://advindicate.com/articles/3022
In one study, only 9% of gay men were monogamous. Source: http://advindicate.com/articles/3022
75% of straight men an are faithful, compared to just 4.5% of gay men. Source: http://advindicate.com/articles/3022
In Berlin, 83% of gay men in “steady” relationships had had frequent affairs in the last year. Source: http://advindicate.com/articles/3022
Infection rates for gonorrhea and chlamydia are increasing among active homosexual men. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/12/the_gay_agenda_and_the_real_world.html
Gay men, 1% of the population, account for 83% of syphilis cases. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/12/the_gay_agenda_and_the_real_world.html
Syphilis was almost eradicated, but made a comeback among homosexual men. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/12/the_gay_agenda_and_the_real_world.html
Active homosexual men are 17 times more likely than straight people to have anal cancer. Source: http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/12/the_gay_agenda_and_the_real_world.html
Lesbians are 2.5x more likely than straight women to be obese. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Lesbians are twice as likely as straight women to have eating disorders. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Lesbians are twice as likely as straight women to be stalked or physically abused by their partners. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Married lesbians are 2-3 times more likely to divorce than straight couples. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
Homosexuals, lesbians, and transsexuals are poorer than straight people. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
America has spent $700 million promoting gay rights abroad – an “integral” part of American foreign policy. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/21/world/africa/us-support-of-gay-rights-in-africa-may-have-done-more-harm-than-good.html?_r=0
Transsexuals
Transsexuals are four times more likely than the average person to be infected with HIV. Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/40279043/ns/health-health_care/
About 88% of children who have gender dysphoria do not hold those beliefs when they grow older. Source: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90229789
Only 12% of boys who believe they are transsexuals still believe so when they are older. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18194003
MRI scans indicate that MtF transsexuals are either men aroused by the thought of possessing female genitalia or homosexuals who want to seduce straight men. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3180619/
41% of transsexuals have tried and failed to commit suicide. Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/40279043/ns/health-health_care/
Transsexuals who undergo sex reassignment surgery are more likely to commit suicide. Source: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0016885
Most young transsexuals have committed self-harm within the last twelve months. Source: http://saravyc.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2015/05/SARAVYC_Trans-Youth-Health-Report_EN_Final_Print.pdf#page=44
65% of transsexual youth have seriously considered suicide within the last year. Source: http://saravyc.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2015/05/SARAVYC_Trans-Youth-Health-Report_EN_Final_Print.pdf#page=44
37% of transsexual youth have attempted suicide within the last year. Source: http://saravyc.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2015/05/SARAVYC_Trans-Youth-Health-Report_EN_Final_Print.pdf#page=44
1 in 10 young transsexuals has attempted suicide more than three times in the last year. Source: http://saravyc.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2015/05/SARAVYC_Trans-Youth-Health-Report_EN_Final_Print.pdf#page=44
Only 21% of transsexuals can sucessfully pass as the opposite gender. Source: http://www.thetaskforce.org/static_html/downloads/reports/reports/ntds_report_on_health.pdf#page=3
53% of mothers of transsexual children have Borderline Personality Disorder, compared to only 6% of mothers of normal children. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2016237
16% of transsexuals have been sent to jail or prison, compared to 2.7% of the general population. Source: http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/Training%20and%20TA%20Center/FORGE_Trans_People_Police_Incarceration_Facts.pdf
Gay and transgender students are half as likely to graduate high school as straight students. Source: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/lgbt/news/2010/06/21/7980/gay-and-transgender-youth-homelessness-by-the-numbers/
20-40% of homeless children are transsexuals. Source: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/lgbt/news/2010/06/21/7980/gay-and-transgender-youth-homelessness-by-the-numbers/
44% of transsexuals with a job are underemployed. Source: http://www.hrc.org/blog/entry/transgender-workers-at-greater-risk-for-unemployment-and-poverty
Children raised by gay couples are twice as likely to be in poverty as children of straight married couples. Source: http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/headlines/beyond-stereotypes-poverty-in-the-lgbt-community/
“24% of lesbians and bisexual women are poor, compared with only 19% of heterosexual women.” Source: http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/headlines/beyond-stereotypes-poverty-in-the-lgbt-community/
1/3 transsexuals are being treated for mental health. Source: http://www.medicaldaily.com/transgender-people-more-likely-develop-depression-and-anxiety-247044
85% of transsexuals show signs of psychological distress or have been recently treated for mental health. Source: http://www.medicaldaily.com/transgender-people-more-likely-develop-depression-and-anxiety-247044
44% of transsexuals show signs of clinical depression. Source: http://www.medicaldaily.com/transgender-people-more-likely-develop-depression-and-anxiety-247044
Transsexuals are more likely to have autism than the general population. Source: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00787-005-0469-4
Transsexuals college students are five times more likely than all students to have an eating disorder. Source: http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X%2815%2900087-7/abstract
Transsexuals college students are 30 times more likely than straight men to have eating disorders. Source: http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X%2815%2900087-7/abstract
27% of MtF transsexuals test positive for HIV. Only 12% report it. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/gender/transgender/
Transsexuals are several times more likely than normal people to have schizophrenia. Source: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/schizort/2014/463757/
Worldwide, male-to-female transsexuals are 50 times likely to have HIV than normal people. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/gender/transgender/
Transsexuals have higher rates of drug and alcohol abuse, prostitution, and incarceration than normal people. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/gender/transgender/
Transsexuals have higher rates of unemployment, homelessness, and attempted suicide than normal people. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/gender/transgender/
Transsexuals are four times more likely to live in extreme poverty than the general population. Source: http://www.transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/resources/NTDS_Report.pdf#page=8
Transsexuals are twice as likely to be unemployed as the general population. Source: http://www.transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/resources/NTDS_Report.pdf#page=9
Non-white transsexuals are four times as likely to be unemployed as the general population. Source: http://www.transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/resources/NTDS_Report.pdf#page=9
Transsexuals are twice as likely to be homeless as cisgendered people. Source: http://www.transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/resources/NTDS_Report.pdf#page=10
1 in 5 transsexuals has been homeless at least once in their lives. Source: http://www.transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/resources/NTDS_Report.pdf#page=10
Close to 80% of children who feel transsexual will abandon their sexual confusion as they age. Source: http://www.wsj.com/articles/paul-mchugh-transgender-surgery-isnt-the-solution-1402615120
Many transsexuals choose to take hormone treatments over HIV medication. Source: http://news.yahoo.com/one-group-people-acquiring-hiv-204557712.html
Male-to-female transsexuals are 50 times more likely than normal people to have HIV. Source: http://news.yahoo.com/one-group-people-acquiring-hiv-204557712.html
Men
Liberal men are more willing to date non-Whites. Source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150824211951.htm
Less masculine men are more prone to violence. Source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150824211951.htm
Muscular strength increases self-esteem and decreases depression, suicide, and hopelessness. Source: http://hpq.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/07/09/1359105315592051
Weaker men are more liberal than stronger men. Source: http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21564825-man%E2%80%99s-muscle-power-influences-his-beliefs
“Men run larger, more innovative, and more growth-oriented enterprises than their female counterparts.” Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/94/1/61
Men are three times more effective at committing suicide than women. Source: http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/AFSP-Williams-Suicide-Report-Final.pdf#page=4
Weaker men are genetically more likely to support redistribution. Source: http://pss.sagepub.com/content/24/7/1098
Attractiveness
Women with low waist-to-hip ratios produce smarter children. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/18/magazine/18fob-Bergner-t.html
Blind men have statistically identical body standards as sighted men. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/18/magazine/18fob-Bergner-t.html
Attractive and successful women are more likely to be heterosexual. Source: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/attractive-women-more-likely-to-be-100-heterosexual-claims-new-study-10470599.html
Attractiveness is about 80% shared and 20% in the eye of the beholder. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=895442
There is a biological basis in a portion of the brain for objective beauty. Source: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001201

More diverse neighborhoods have lower social cohesion. Source: http://www.citylab.com/housing/2013/11/paradox-diverse-communities/7614/
Diversity increases psychotic experiences. Source: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/201/4/282.full
Diversity increases social adversity. Source: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/201/4/282.full
A 10% increase in diversity doubles the chance of psychotic episodes. Source: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/201/4/282.full
Diversity reduces voter registration, political efficacy, charity, and number of friendships. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
Ethnic diversity reduces happiness and quality of life. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
Diversity reduces trust, civic participation, and civic health. Source: http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2007/08/05/the_downside_of_diversity/?page=full
Ethnic diversity harms health for Hispanics and Blacks. Source: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300787
Diversity primarily hurts the dominant ethnic group. Source: http://www.theindependentaustralian.com.au/node/57
Ethnic diversity reduces concern for the environment. Source: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10640-012-9619-6
Ethnic diversity within 80 meters of a person reduces social trust. Source: http://curis.ku.dk/ws/files/130251172/Dinesen_S_nderskov_Ethnic_Diversity_and_Social_Trust_Forthcoming_ASR.pdf#page=2
Ethnic diversity directly reduces strong communities. Source: https://www.msu.edu/~zpneal/publications/neal-diversitysoc.pdf
Ethnically homogeneous neighborhoods are beneficial for health. Source: https://www.mailman.columbia.edu/public-health-now/news/living-ethnically-homogenous-area-boosts-health-minority-seniors
In America, more diverse cities have more segregation. Source: http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-most-diverse-cities-are-often-the-most-segregated/
Homogeneous polities have less crime, less civil war, and more altruism. Source: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10464-013-9608-0
States with little diversity have more democracy, less corruption, and less inequality. Source: http://www.theindependentaustralian.com.au/node/57
There is extensive evidence people prefer others who are genetically similar. Source: http://psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/n&n%202005-1.pdf
Borders, not multiculturalism, reduce intergroup violence. Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.1409
Diversity reduces charity and volunteering. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
People who live in diverse communities rather than homogenous ones are poorer and less educated. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
Black people trust their neighbors less than do White people. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
Spanish speakers trust their neighbors less than do English speakers. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
Asians trust their neighbors less than do White people. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
Ethnically diverse workplaces have lower cohesion, lower satisfaction and higher turnover. Source: http://jom.sagepub.com/content/23/3/239.short?rss=1&ssource=mfc
Ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Source: http://www.nber.org/papers/w5677
Ethnic diversity among members of the same race reduces infrastructure quality, charity, and loan repayment. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
Diversity of any sort makes people more likely to defect in game theoretic scenarios. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
Homogeneous military units have less desertion than diverse units. Source: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8627
Diversity correlates with low GDP. Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2013/05/16/a-revealing-map-of-the-worlds-most-and-least-ethnically-diverse-countries/
Ethnic homogeneity correlates with strong democracy. Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2013/05/16/a-revealing-map-of-the-worlds-most-and-least-ethnically-diverse-countries/
Genetic diversity causes societal conflict. Source: https://www.nber.org/papers/w21079
Ethnic diversity causally decreases social cohesion. Source: http://esr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/08/20/esr.jcv081.full
Ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism is rational, biological, and genetic in origin. Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/108/4/1262.abstract
Babies demonstrate ethnocentrism before exposure to non-Whites. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01138.x/full
Ethnocentrism is universal and likely evolved in origin. Source: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~axe/research/AxHamm_Ethno.pdf
Races are extended families. Ethnocentrism is genetically rational. Source: http://www.amazon.com/The-Ethnic-Phenomenon-Pierre-Berghe/dp/0275927091
Ethnocentrism is biological in origin and a superior evolutionary strategy to altruism. Source: http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/16/3/7.html
Humans are more altruistic to individuals who they are more closely related to. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17456276
People subconsciously prefer those who are genetically similar to them for biologically rational reasons. Source: http://www.psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/Genetic%20Similarity%201989.pdf
Kinship between members of an ethnic group is greater than expected. Source: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.372.1009
Intelligence
Human intelligence is highly heritable. Source: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v16/n10/abs/mp201185a.html
The scientific consensus is that IQ tests are not racially biased. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289608000305
Very poor Whites are about as intelligent as very wealthy Blacks. Source: http://www.jbhe.com/features/49_college_admissions-test.html
Privately, intelligence experts hold more hereditarian views than they express in public. Source: http://www.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/reprints/1994egalitarianfiction.pdf#page=3
Black children raised in White households have similar IQ scores to Black children in Black households. Source: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1977-07996-001
The average African IQ is estimated at 75. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886912003741
The average African-American IQ is 85, compared to the average White IQ of 100. Source: http://www.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/reprints/1997mainstream.pdf#page=2
The White-Black gap in SAT scores, a proxy for IQ, is increasing. Source: http://www.jbhe.com/features/49_college_admissions-test.html
Genes for large brains, linked to high IQ, are common everywhere except Africa. Source: http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB115040765329081636
Intelligence has a 40-50% genetic basis. Source: http://articles.latimes.com/2011/aug/10/news/la-heb-genetic-study-intelligence-20110809
IQ scores are the best predictor of success in Western society. Source: http://psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/PPPL1.pdf#page=2
IQ is 75% heritable among Whites. Source: http://psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/PPPL1.pdf#page=2
The average Hispanic IQ is 90. Source: http://benthamopen.com/contents/pdf/TOPSYJ/TOPSYJ-3-9.pdf
The average IQ in Sub-Saharan Africa is 70. Source: http://benthamopen.com/contents/pdf/TOPSYJ/TOPSYJ-3-9.pdf
The average IQ in southeast Asia is 87. Source: http://benthamopen.com/contents/pdf/TOPSYJ/TOPSYJ-3-9.pdf
The heritability of IQ reaches .8 (80%) in later adulthood. Source: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v20/n1/full/mp2014105a.html
Intelligence “is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality.” Source: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v20/n1/full/mp2014105a.html
Intelligence is the most important trait for marriage. Source: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v20/n1/full/mp2014105a.html
Heritability of IQ increases throughout life (except for very old age). Source: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v20/n1/full/mp2014105a.html
The Black-White IQ gap is mostly heritable. Source: http://benthamopen.com/contents/pdf/TOPSYJ/TOPSYJ-3-9.pdf
Higher IQ is linked to lower time preference. Source: http://www.yale.edu/scan/Shamosh_inpress_Intelligence.pdf
The IQ of a country’s rulers largely determines productivity and wealth. Source: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/57563/
Intelligent people are more likely to be physically active outside of work and to eat fruits and vegetables. Source: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v20/n1/full/mp2014105a.html
Everyday life is an IQ test. Source: http://www.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/reprints/1997whygmatters.pdf
“Intelligence and ability are personal traits that are stable over time and that the role of effort in academic performance is limited.” Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022440514000831
Stereotype effect explains a just “small to medium” amount of group differences in IQ. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022440514000831
A meta-analysis concludes that stereotype threat predicts 3.3 IQ points of group differences in intelligence. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022440514000831
There is pervasive publication bias in research claiming that “stereotype threat” is responsible for group differences in intelligence. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022440514000831
When corrected for publishing biases, the impact of stereotype threat is statistically indistinguishable from zero. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022440514000831
The world’s thirty least intelligent countries (except for Haiti) are all in sub-Saharan Africa. Source: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8492613&fileId=S1832427400010045
Haiti, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Guatemala and Qatar are the least intelligent countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Source: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8492613&fileId=S1832427400010045
Colder climates selected for higher IQ populations by imposing more complex survival requirements. Source: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8492613&fileId=S1832427400010045
Higher IQ is linked to more democracy. Source: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8492613&fileId=S1832427400010045
IQ is the best known predictor of job performance for all studied occupations. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ijsa.12069/abstract
Intelligence can be measured directly from brain scans, without tests of any sort. Source: http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nn.4135.html
The average criminal has an IQ of 85. Source: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/21st-century-criminology-a-reference-handbook/book232189
Most if not all psychological traits are substantially influenced by genetics. Source: http://cdp.sagepub.com/content/13/4/148
IQ scores predict life outcomes equally well for different races. Source: http://www.vdare.com/articles/indians-arent-that-intelligent-on-average
Muslim counties have an average IQ of just 81, 7.5 points lower than non-Muslim countries. Source: http://mankindquarterly.org/archive/paper.php?p=647
Arab countries have an average IQ of just 84. Source: http://mankindquarterly.org/archive/paper.php?p=647
Skin color is the best biological predictor of IQ. Source: http://mankindquarterly.org/archive/paper.php?p=647
Nearly every reliably measured psychological trait, especially IQ, is significantly influenced by genetic factors. Source: http://cdp.sagepub.com/content/13/4/148
Smarter people are more cooperative than dumb people. Source: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/research/centres/cage/manage/publications/255-2015_proto.pdf#page=2
Race Validity
Humans can be genetically categorized into five racial groups, corresponding to traditional races. Source: http://pritchardlab.stanford.edu/publications/pdfs/RosenbergEtAl02.pdf
Genetic analysis “supports the traditional racial groups classification.” Source: http://psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/PPPL1.pdf
“Human genetic variation is geographically structured” and corresponds with race. Source: http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/full/ng1435.html
Race can be determined via genetics with certainty for >99.8% of individuals. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15625622
Oral bacteria can be used to determine race. Source: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-10-oral-bacteria-fingerprint-mouth.html
Race can be determined via brain scans. Source: http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822%2815%2900671-5
96-97% of Whites have no African ancestry. Source: http://www.theroot.com/articles/history/2013/02/how_mixed_are_african_americans.3.html
97% of Whites have no Black ancestry whatsoever. Source: http://www.unz.com/isteve/nyt-white-Black-a-murky-distinction-grows-still-murkier/
There was minimal gene flow between archaic Europeans and Asians. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/20/science/20adapt.html
Common-sense racial categories have biological meaning. Source: http://www.ln.edu.hk/philoso/staff/sesardic/Race2.pdf
A substantial amount of the human genome has been subjected to natural selection since the races diverged. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1317879/
With 160 short gene sequences, race can be determined with 100% accuracy for Whites, Asians, and Africans. Source: http://www.cell.com/ajhg/abstract/S0002-9297%2807%2960574-6
Principal continent of origin (race) can be determined with 87% accuracy even for highly mixed populations. Source: http://www.cell.com/ajhg/abstract/S0002-9297%2807%2960574-6
“It is inaccurate to state that race is biologically meaningless.” Source: http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/full/ng1435.html
Race is biologically real and represents “genetic clusters” of variation. Source: http://stx.sagepub.com/content/30/2/67.abstract
“Empirical structure within human genetic variation … resembles continentally based racial classifications”. Source: http://stx.sagepub.com/content/30/2/67.abstract
“Recent research in genetics demonstrates that certain racial, and also ethnic, categories have a biological basis in statistically discernible clusters of alleles.” Source: http://stx.sagepub.com/content/30/2/67.abstract
“Numerous human population genetic studies have come to the identical conclusion that genetic differentiation is greatest when defined on a continental basis.” Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC139378/
Genetic analysis of race corresponds with self-identification more than 99% of the time. Source: http://stx.sagepub.com/content/30/2/67.abstract
Races are human subspecies. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19695787
The “social constructionist account of race lacks biological reality”. Source: http://stx.sagepub.com/content/30/2/67.abstract
Race can be determined from fingerprints. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22869/full
For 99.86% of individuals, genetic analysis of race matches self-identification. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1196372/
Predefined ethnic/racial labels are “highly informative” about genetic identity. Source: https://web.stanford.edu/group/rosenberglab/papers/popstruct.pdf
Over 2000 genes have been subject to recent (post out-of-Africa) evolution. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/20/science/20adapt.html
The concept of race existed in ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, China, India, and Arabia. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Race-The-Reality-Human-Differences/dp/0813340861
Racial classification has genetic significance. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bies.10315/abstract
Racial identity is real and is hidden in correlations between different traits. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bies.10315/abstract
With enough data points, an individual will never be closer related to someone of another race than someone of their own race. Source: http://www.genetics.org/content/176/1/351
An individual’s geographic origin can be determined from their genes “with remarkable accuracy”. Source: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v368/n6470/abs/368455a0.html
Liberals
The more liberal someone is, the more likely they are to unjustly discriminate on the basis of politics. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2002636
Conservative psychologists face discrimination that liberals do not notice. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2002636
82% of psychologists are explicitly willing to discriminate against conservatives. Source: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9945048
The field of psychology is rife with progressive bias and intolerance of conservatives. Source: http://cdp.sagepub.com/content/23/1/27.abstract
Liberals are equally as intolerant as conservatives. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2239819
Conservatives are happier than liberals. Source: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2239819
Liberals consistently underestimate the compassion of conservatives. Source: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050092
Liberals view themselves as more compassionate than they really are. Source: http://heterodoxacademy.org/2015/09/23/how-marcuse-made-todays-students-less-tolerant-than-their-parents/
Young people who advocate for social justice are less tolerant than their peers. Source: http://heterodoxacademy.org/2015/09/23/how-marcuse-made-todays-students-less-tolerant-than-their-parents/
Conservative and rural Whites are discriminated against in college admissions. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/19/opinion/19douthat.html?_r=0
Liberals value the lives of Black people and foreigners more than the lives of White people and Americans. Source: http://www.wired.com/2010/09/kill-whitey-its-the-right-thing-to-do/
72% of American college faculty are liberal, while only 15% are conservative. Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A8427-2005Mar28.htmlAt elite
American colleges, 87% of faculty identify as liberal. Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A8427-2005Mar28.html
Other
Southern cities, corrected for race and poverty, have less crime than other American cities. Source: http://www.unz.com/article/race-and-crime-in-america/
Sweden’s Human Development Index is expected to decline. Source: http://ww.rrojasdatabank.info/HDRP_2010_40.pdf#page=45
The diversity of hair and eye color among Whites is an evolutionary adaptation. Source: http://www.ceacb.ucl.ac.uk/cultureclub/files/CC2006-03-07_Frost.pdf
1% of Sweden’s population is responsible for 63% of their crime. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3969807/
Homicide rates would be 5x higher today if not for medical advancements. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1124155/
Assimilation into a host culture improves well-being. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24364853
Traditional societies have ‘very low’ rates of suicide. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3067529
Human evolution is unceasing and continues to this day. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/20/science/20adapt.html
Higher individuality is linked to lower time preference. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1481443
Extensive use of the death penalty historically in Europe is responsible for today’s peace and low crime. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25748943
Morally repugnant hypotheses are incorrectly viewed as less plausible. Source: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13164-015-0282-z
Remembering your ancestors increases intellectual performance. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.778/abstract
Human evolution took place as recently as 500 generations ago. Source: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2015/06/19/018929
All behavioral traits are substantially heritable. Evidence for this is “ubiquitous”. Source: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v20/n1/full/mp2014105a.html
Seeing the American flag increases nationalism. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2008.00670.x/abstract
Racial, religious, gender, and other stereotypes are generally accurate. Source: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~jussim/unbearable%20accuracy%20of%20stereotypes.pdf
Stereotypes are generally accurate, and prejudice relatively small and fleeting. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Social-Perception-Reality-Dominates-Self-Fulfilling/dp/0195366603
Poorly performing schools often receive equal or more funding than well-performing schools. Source: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d03234.pdf
100% (324/324) of Chinese researchers believe race is biologically real. Source: http://collegium.hrvatsko-antropolosko-drustvo.hr/_doc/Coll.Antropol.28%282004%292_907-921.pdf
Jews, Blacks, and women were instrumental in turning the scientific consensus against the validity of race. Source: http://collegium.hrvatsko-antropolosko-drustvo.hr/_doc/Coll.Antropol.28%282004%292_907-921.pdf#page=6
Americans soldiers have higher IQ scores than civilians. Source: http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/fragmented-future/
Violence is a heritable trait. Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/103/16/6085.full
Offensive words do not cause harm. Source: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/law/15/2/81/
Internet access increases racial animosity. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2335637
73% of India’s population, or over 900 million people, would move to the United States if able (i.e., open borders). Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2015/08/19/a-question-related-to-open-immigration-policy/
In Europe, culture corresponds closely to genetic group. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23390109
Feudal Britain had eugenic natural selection for rich individuals. Source: http://www.econ.ucdavis.edu/faculty/gclark/papers/JEH2006.pdf#page=16
In most countries, immigration reduces the academic performance of native schoolchildren. Source: http://wol.iza.org/articles/immigrants-in-classroom-and-effects-on-native-children
Between 2 and 6 percent of illegal immigrants voted in the 2008 and 2010 elections. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261379414000973
Immigration will reduce the average IQ of countries and lead to the collapse of Western civilization. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886911001073
99% or more of adolescents who attempt to commit suicide fail. Source: http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/AFSP-Williams-Suicide-Report-Final.pdf#page=4
Nordic countries “have long played a disproportionate role on issues of global development.” Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
More religious people have better quality marriages. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/10/25/sf.sos126.abstract
Households with a single mother and a non-biological father have the highest rates of child abuse and neglect. Source: http://center4research.org/violence-risky-behavior/violence-and-threats-in-the-home/father-figures-are-the-answer-but-whats-the-question/
Poverty is not a cause of crime. Source: http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748703580904574638024055735590
Concealed carry holders commit less gun crime than even police officers. Source: http://crimeresearch.org/2015/02/cprc-in-fox-news-police-are-extremely-law-abiding-but-concealed-handgun-permit-holders-are-even-more-so/
Stereotypes are accurate, and this is one of the strongest findings in the field of psychology. Source: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/rabble-rouser/201210/stereotype-inaccuracy
Wealthier Americans are more authoritarian and more likely to oppose democracy than poor Americans. Source: http://www.vox.com/polyarchy/2015/12/18/9360663/is-democracy-in-trouble
Worldwide, people are becoming less supportive of democracy and more amenable to non-democratic rule. Source: http://www.vox.com/polyarchy/2015/12/18/9360663/is-democracy-in-trouble
Americans are becoming less supportive of democracy over time. Source: http://www.vox.com/polyarchy/2015/12/18/9360663/is-democracy-in-trouble
Young Americans are less supportive of democracy than their parents. Source: http://www.vox.com/polyarchy/2015/12/18/9360663/is-democracy-in-trouble
40% of wealthy Americans reject democracy and would support a strong autocrat. Source: http://www.vox.com/polyarchy/2015/12/18/9360663/is-democracy-in-trouble
Immigration to the United States has increased income inequality. Source: http://spa.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/09/21/1532440015603814.abstract
Across many different cultures, people want traditional landscape art the most and modern art the least. Source: http://awp.diaart.org/km/index.php
Thanks for reading. Take care.
Mar
08
Hatefacts That Didn’t Make The Cut
Here are some hatefacts that weren’t good enough for the @LibrarianofHate Twitter account, mostly because I couldn’t verify the source or because I couldn’t fit them into 140 characters. They vary in quality and content, and not all may be accurate, so caveat emptor.
90% of Middle Eastern immigrants to the United States do not pay income tax and receive money from the government. Source: http://cis.org/High-Cost-of-Resettling-Middle-Eastern-Refugees
45% of British Muslims believe that clerics preaching violence against the West are in line with mainstream Muslims. Source: http://comres.co.uk/polls/bbc-radio-4-today-muslim-poll/
10% of Muslim students in the UK wouldn’t report a Muslim planning terrorism to the police. 10% more refuse to answer. Source: http://web.archive.org/web/20060510191210/http://www.fosis.org.uk/sac/FullReport.pdf#page=36
African and Middle Eastern immigrants to Sweden with university degrees are less literate than Swedes without degrees. Source: http://www.tino.us/2015/12/langtidsutredningen-ett-bombnedslag-i-invandringsdebatten/
Because of inbreeding, children of Muslim immigrants to Denmark are three times more likely to be intellectually disabled than native Danes. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppe.12195/abstract
15% of the human genome has been under selective pressures since the races separated. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Troublesome-Inheritance-Genes-Human-History/dp/1594204462
Race is a better predictor of crime than poverty. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
The percentage of Blacks and Hispanics in an area, not poverty, is the best predictor of crime. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Women who claim to be willing to date any race are lying and are just as discriminatory as women with explicit racial preferences. Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=895442
Half of hate crimes are Blacks and Hispanics attacking each other. Source: https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=7337
90% of gang members are non-White. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are seven times more likely than Whites to commit murder. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Students of all races perform worse in schools with more Black students. Source: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/09/24/study-finds-students-underperform-in-schools-with-large-Black-populations
Blacks commit more violent crime against Whites than against other Blacks. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are 39 times more likely to commit a violent crime against Whites than vice versa. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are 136 times more likely to commit a violent crime against Whites than vice versa. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are 2 times more likely to commit a hate crime against Whites than vice versa. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are three times more likely than Whites to commit White-collar crime (fraud, bribery, racketeering, embezzlement). Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Areas with more Black people have higher rates of crime. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Crime-Correlates-Lee-Ellis/dp/0123736129
85% of crime between Blacks and Whites is committed by Blacks. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Blacks are just 13% of the American population but have committed half of all murders for the last 30 years. Source: http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2015/11/28/5-devastating-facts-black-black-crime/
The South African murder rate is the 10th highest in the world. White farmers are killed 4x more often than the general population. Source: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/398136/end-south-africa-josh-gelernter
In South Africa, 7% of men have participated in gang rape. Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/11/27/south-africa-rape-study-m_n_788722.html
Only 54% of Black men between 25-34 have high school degrees, are employed, and are not currently incarcerated. Source: http://blogs.baruch.cuny.edu/lexingtonreview/?p=36
Sub-Saharan Africans are the only group of people without detailed mythology or creation stories. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Origins-Worlds-Mythologies-Michael-Witzel/dp/0199812853
“Nonwhite daters gain status by dating any White. Whites, on the other hand, have little to gain by dating minorities.” Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/3/807.abstract
Slim, slender, athletic, fit or average White women are 7x more likely than fat White women to refuse to date Blacks. Source: http://paa2008.princeton.edu/papers/80046#page=23
Hispanics receive shorter prison sentences than Whites for the same crimes. Source: http://people.terry.uga.edu/mustard/sentencing.pdf
Hispanics are 19 times more likely than Whites to be a gang member. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Hispanics are three times more likely to be in prison than Whites. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Hispanics are three times as likely as Whites to commit violent crime. Source: http://www.colorofcrime.com/2005/10/the-color-of-crime-2005/
Because of demographic changes and low college attendance among Hispanics, per capita income in California is expected to decline. Source: http://www.city-journal.org/2008/eon1008hm.html
Gypsies are 5% of Britain’s prisoners but only .1% of Britain’s population. Source: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/mar/11/gypsies-roma-travellers-over-represented-jails-england-wales-prisons
Jews are overrepresented in top colleges relative to their academic achievements. Source: http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/the-myth-of-american-meritocracy/
75-80% of art dealers, curators, and critics are Jewish. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Pardes-Israel-Shamir/dp/1419606018
Alleles harmful to health are more common in Ashkenazi Jews than in the general population. Source: http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v12/n5/full/5201156a.html
2.3% of Jews are inbred. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14742164
Cousin marriage and uncle-niece marriage are common in many Sephardic Jewish communities. Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/suppl_1/1779.full
Jews are 10% of Princeton’s students, an overrepresentation of 500%. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/1999/06/02/nyregion/princeton-puzzle-where-have-jewish-students-gone.html
Jews are between one quarter and one third of Ivy League college students. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/1999/06/02/nyregion/princeton-puzzle-where-have-jewish-students-gone.html
In 1934, Jews held 38.5% of senior Soviet security posts. Source: http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3342999,00.html
More advanced societies have more differentiated gender roles. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19824299
More sex partners causally increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol abuse. Source: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fulfillment-any-age/201304/the-lingering-psychological-effects-multiple-sex-partners
College students who major in fields with a greater proportion of women have lower average IQ. Source: http://www.randalolson.com/2014/06/25/average-iq-of-students-by-college-major-and-gender-ratio/
Couples who cohabit before marriage have lower quality marriages. Source: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/10/25/sf.sos126.abstract
Stay-at-home wives are more content than working wives. Source: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/the_highbrow/2006/03/desperate_feminist_wives.html
1/4 gay men in America have had over 1000 sex partners. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Homosexualities-Study-Diversity-Among-Women/dp/0671251503
43% of gay men have over 500 partners. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Homosexualities-Study-Diversity-Among-Women/dp/0671251503
Gay men are six times more likely to commit suicide than straight men. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Unequal-Opportunity-Disparities-Affecting-Bisexual/dp/0195301536
Gay men are 12x more likely to use amphetamines than straight men. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Unequal-Opportunity-Disparities-Affecting-Bisexual/dp/0195301536
Gay men are 10x more likely to use heroin than straight men. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Unequal-Opportunity-Disparities-Affecting-Bisexual/dp/0195301536
Gay people are 2-3x more likely to abuse alcohol than straight people. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Unequal-Opportunity-Disparities-Affecting-Bisexual/dp/0195301536
Up to 50% of lesbians have reported sexual abuse. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9360290
79% of homosexual men say over half of their sex partners are strangers. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Unequal-Opportunity-Disparities-Affecting-Bisexual/dp/0195301536
Homosexuals are more likely than straight people to have anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and to commit suicide. Source: http://takimag.com/article/the_straight_dope_on_homosexuality_elizabeth_mccaw/print
28% of homosexuals have had sex with over a thousand men. For straight men? Just 25% have had sex with more than 10 women. Source: http://advindicate.com/articles/3022
MRI scans indicate that MtF transsexuals are either men aroused by the thought of possessing female genitalia or homosexuals who want to seduce straight men. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3180619/
53% of mothers of transsexual children have Borderline Personality Disorder, compared to only 6% of mothers of normal children. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2016237
Children raised by gay couples are twice as likely to be in poverty as children of straight married couples. Source: http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/headlines/beyond-stereotypes-poverty-in-the-lgbt-community/
Transsexuals have higher rates of drug and alcohol abuse, prostitution, and incarceration than normal people. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/gender/transgender/
The diversity of hair and eye color among Whites is an evolutionary adaptation. Source: http://www.ceacb.ucl.ac.uk/cultureclub/files/CC2006-03-07_Frost.pdf
Traditional societies have ‘very low’ rates of suicide. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3067529
Homicide rates would be 5x higher today if not for medical advancements. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1124155/
Extensive use of the death penalty historically in Europe is responsible for today’s peace and low crime. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25748943
Racial, religious, gender, and other stereotypes are generally accurate. Source: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~jussim/unbearable%20accuracy%20of%20stereotypes.pdf
Stereotypes are generally accurate, and prejudice relatively small and fleeting. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Social-Perception-Reality-Dominates-Self-Fulfilling/dp/0195366603
100% (324/324) of Chinese researchers believe race is biologically real. Source: http://collegium.hrvatsko-antropolosko-drustvo.hr/_doc/Coll.Antropol.28%282004%292_907-921.pdf
73% of India’s population, or over 900 million people, would move to the United States if able (i.e., open borders). Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2015/08/19/a-question-related-to-open-immigration-policy/
Households with a single mother and a non-biological father have the highest rates of child abuse and neglect. Source: http://center4research.org/violence-risky-behavior/violence-and-threats-in-the-home/father-figures-are-the-answer-but-whats-the-question/
Stereotypes are accurate, and this is one of the strongest findings in the field of psychology. Source: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/rabble-rouser/201210/stereotype-inaccuracy
Races are extended families. Ethnocentrism is genetically rational. Source: http://www.amazon.com/The-Ethnic-Phenomenon-Pierre-Berghe/dp/0275927091
Ethnic diversity among members of the same race reduces infrastructure quality, charity, and loan repayment. Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x/abstract
Intelligence “is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality.” Source: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v20/n1/full/mp2014105a.html
Intelligent people are more likely to be physically active outside of work and to eat fruits and vegetables. Source: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v20/n1/full/mp2014105a.html
There is pervasive publication bias in research claiming that “stereotype threat” is responsible for group differences in intelligence. Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022440514000831
Haiti, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Guatemala and Qatar are the least intelligent countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Source: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8492613&fileId=S1832427400010045
The average criminal has an IQ of 85. Source: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/21st-century-criminology-a-reference-handbook/book232189
Nearly every reliably measured psychological trait, especially IQ, is significantly influenced by genetic factors. Source: http://cdp.sagepub.com/content/13/4/148
“Recent research in genetics demonstrates that certain racial, and also ethnic, categories have a biological basis in statistically discernible clusters of alleles.” Source: http://stx.sagepub.com/content/30/2/67.abstract
“Numerous human population genetic studies have come to the identical conclusion that genetic differentiation is greatest when defined on a continental basis.” Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC139378/
The concept of race existed in ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, China, India, and Arabia. Source: http://www.amazon.com/Race-The-Reality-Human-Differences/dp/0813340861
With enough data points, an individual will never be closer related to someone of another race than someone of their own race. Source: http://www.genetics.org/content/176/1/351